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Marine Reserve Area (MPA) - Essay Example

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According to Clark and Mangel (2000), marine reserves or marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly viewed as a method to protect various stocks of fish and invertebrates, and also as a key instrument for the rehabilitation of depleted stocks. The Convention on Biological…
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Marine Reserve Area (MPA)
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Download file to see previous pages The term MPA is used in the generic sense covering all marine sites that meet the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources’s (IUCN) protected area definition “regardless of purpose, design, management approach, or gazetted name including marine reserve, sanctuary, and marine park” (UNEP-WCMC, 2008, p.18).
“Historically, protected areas were established on an individual ad hoc basis rather than through a systematic, planned process” (UNEP-WCMC, 2008, p.13). In the case of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), from as early as 1988, the need for a global protective system was recognized at various important global conferences. The establishment of marine protected areas were to be consistent with international law, based on scientific information, and required the formation of a global network of Marine Protected Areas. While regional action and targets aimed to establish protected area systems by 2010 based on regional and environmental conventions and protocols, the Congress also recommended the establishment of MPA networks across 20 to 30% of the world’s oceans by 2012. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) took into consideration all the recommendations, and responded by making it mandatory for all parties to establish protected areas as planned and managed as a system or network.
Marine protected areas are developed for fulfilling multiple objectives. They take into consideration conservation of the biodiversity and genetic diversity of the area, preserving ecosystems and maintaining ecological processes, and sustainable use of natural resources. Further, MPAs protect commercially valuable species, replenish depleted stocks, provide protection from natural hazards, and undertake education and research in related fields. Marine protected areas also ensure benefits to society and the economy, and promote ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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