Nobody downloaded yet

The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This paper will examine the peculiarities of the evolution of primate locomotion and body configuration. Body size has a leading control on locomotor performance and the morphology of the locomotor apparatus. In locomotion under the influence of gravity, body mass acts as weight force and is a mechanical variable…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.1% of users find it useful
The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration"

Download file to see previous pages In 1956, while searching through a collection of fossils at the American Museum of Natural History, I came across a small piece of forehead bone, identified as a "possible primate," that had lain neglected for half a century. It had been recovered from the Fayum badlands, sixty miles southwest of Cairo, Egypt, by an amateur collector named Richard Markgraf. The rock in which it was found was known to belong to the geological epoch we call the Oligocene (now estimated to have lasted from 34 to 23 million years ago). Although only the size of a quarter, the fossil displayed two defining characteristics of the Anthropoidea, or higher primates--the large evolutionary group that includes monkeys, apes, and humans. I could tell that the right and left frontal (forehead) bones in this small animal were fused along the midline suture into a single bone, as is the case in all the higher primates. And on the right side, just enough of the rim of the eye socket was preserved for me to establish that it was fully enclosed in the back by bony plates (the eyeballs of more primitive primates are normally encircled by just a thin bar of bone). Neither feature had been previously documented in so old a fossil.
Better late than never, the small piece of bone joined a short list of other fossils discovered in the Fayum between 1906 and 1910 that also appeared to belong to higher primates. The best of the other fossils--both nearly complete mandibles--belonged to two small species named Parapithecus fraasi and Propliopithecus haeckeli. Both have lower molars with anthropoidean features--in particular, they are broad and flat and have five cusps. (Miyamoto 197-220) In addition, Propliopithecus has the same number of the different types of teeth as other Old World anthropoideans, and the two sides of the lower jaw are solidly fused together in the front, another important characteristic of higher primates.
My interest sparked by these tantalizing finds, I began doing fieldwork in the Fayum more than thirty years ago. Since then, my teams and I have succeeded in gathering hundreds of additional primate fossils, documenting the presence of eleven primate species in Oligocene deposits that are 30 to 33 million years old. The largest of these species, a close relative of Propliopithecus, is Aegyptopithecus zeuxis, a cat-size creature that appears to stand at or near the base of the family tree of the Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. We have collected several skulls and faces of Aegyptopithecus, as well as many bones from the rest of its skeleton (see "Dawn Ape of the Fayum," Natural History, May 1984).
Many of the eleven Oligocene species have anthropoidean features, including the fused frontal bone, enclosed eye socket, lower jaws that are solidly fused together in the front, and the broadened and flattened lower molars with five principal cusps. In certain details, the upper molars also resemble those of more recent higher primates. Another anthropoidean characteristic is the manner in which the bony ring encircling the eardrum lines the auditory opening at the side of the skull.
The eleven species are diverse in many respects, however. By 1985, I had accumulated enough evidence to say that they fell into several different taxonomic families or subfamilies. Given that so much diversity had evolved, I had to conclude that the common ancestor of all the higher primates must go back a long way in Africa.
This was only the beginning, however, for in 1983 a Fayum site called Locality 41 had been discovered. Its exposed deposits came from a much deeper layer than those of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1501045-the-evolution-of-primate-locomotion-and-body-configuration
(The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration Essay)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1501045-the-evolution-of-primate-locomotion-and-body-configuration.
“The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1501045-the-evolution-of-primate-locomotion-and-body-configuration.
  • Cited: 1 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration

Primate Conservation

...for setting up business farming industry. Medical advances leading to higher birth rate and increase in immigration is also leading to further decrease in the number of primates in their territory. Thus, the problem of loss of habitat is made worse by human pressure on the forests. Primates require big area enough as homes and if not provided with ultimately lead their death and as we know, chances of existence of small population is very grim (Science daily, 2007). Another crucial threat that is being faced by our so called relatives is hunting. There is an insatiable demand for bush meat that leads to hunting. Also, many body parts of these primates are used for making...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Configuration Management

...?Software configuration management improvement and security School of Computing Sciences, UEA, Norwich. NR4 7TJ. E-mail] Abstract Changes are eminent during the production of a product. It is how we manage those changes is what really matters. Software configuration management helps companies understand how to manage change without compromising on the quality or function of the software. This paper would discuss how to improve the management of change without compromising on the security of institutions. This paper would particularly discuss the research paper of I. Hsin Chou1 and his proposed methods to implement change in a nuclear power plant without compromising on the security of the system. In a...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Primate Observation

...to that of the humans. To this end, its physical attributes show an intricate familiarity to that of humans. Consequently, archaeological scientists have strongly correlated the ancient evolution of man to that of the ape lineage. Furthermore, the chimpanzee is credited with having the most social and intelligent characteristics similar to that of human beings. To this end, its ability to correctly utilize tools in extracting food points towards the evolution of the human mind in terms of technical applications. Furthermore, there social construct of both chimpanzees and gorillas exhibit cooperation, family set ups and bonding and protective mechanisms that are inherently similar to human actions and...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Primate Observations

...thereby corroborating the common ancestry theory and the theory of evolution all of which seek to explain the origin of the different animals (Waal and Frans 55). Apes are arguably the largest arboreal animals implying that they are the largest mammals living in trees. The primates are of the biological family known as Hominoidea of the family Homo thereby making them very closely related to humans. They therefore have numerous personality traits similar to those exhibited by humans. The primates are herbivores and natives of Africa and East Asia owing to the existence of large tropical services that provided adequate habitation. Currently, they live in different parts of the world owing...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

The evolution and behavior of a primate species

...transformed to adapt to its environment. Just as the gist of Charles Darwin's theory on evolution states, it is the survival of the fittest (Darwin). The species, then, transformed because of its need to survive. In the cognitive aspect, the primate's intelligence developed due to reasons that would ensure its survival. Just as apes realized the importance of arboreal locomotion, soon after, some of them have developed the skill in tool-making, and would use them to acquire food and for social displays, especially observed with chimpanzees (Byrne 559). Chimpanzees are also observed to use objects as tools to solve new and novel problems...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Primate Social Behavior Tell Us About Human Evolution

...Primate Social Behavior Tell Us about Human Evolution Faculty Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Primate III. Social Behavior IV. Human Evolution V. Conclusion VI. Reference I. Introduction Understanding primate social behavior to understand human evolution is very important. The social behavior culture and different aspects of human society have changed from million of years and is still changing. The culture, social relationships and roles within a society has developed and evolved now. There are various factors which impact this process of evolution. These factors can be analyzed based on environment and...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Primate

...Primate Chimpanzee Chimpanzee is a primate, and it belongs to the group of Great apes. Primates are those living beings, which have the characteristics of forward-facing eyes and highly flexible arms, legs and fingers. Chimpanzee belongs to the hominidae family, and has close evolutionary relation to the humans. “The Great apes and we are so close, that it is obvious that a fundamental error was made when classifying ourselves as something separate”(Caldecott, Miles 12 ).Male Chimpanzees are taller and heavier than their female counterpart. They have arms, which are longer than their legs and is an avid tree climber. They usually walk on all fours with the use of their knuckles supporting...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

Primate comparison

...Comparison of Primates The Nycticebus coucang often referred to as the Sunda Loris is a primate that lives in Indonesia. The primate is native to Indonesia, Western Malaysia as well as Singapore. The animal often measures 27 to around 38 cm from the head to around the tail and it often weighs from 599 to around 700 grams (Wiens, 2002). The animal is nocturnal as well as arboreal, it often occurs in evergreen forests. The animal often prefers continuous dense canopies that in many cases occur in rainforests. This is because the animal has an enormously low metabolic rate that is compared to other mammals that exist that are the same size with it. The diet of the animal includes sap, fruit,...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Primate Infanticide

... to note that not only primates practice infanticide, but it is a behavior that is rampant across some groups of birds and lions as well. Whereas some anthropology scholars attribute primate infanticide to pathological behavior, it is important to remember that comprehensive research point out to the practice being a male reproductive strategy. References Borries, C., Launhardt, K., Epplen, C., Epplen, J. T., & Winkler, P. (1999). DNA analyses support the hypothesis that infanticide is adaptive in langur monkeys. The Royal Society, 266, pg. 901-904. Palombit, R. A. (n.d). Infanticide and the Evolution of Pair Bonds in Nonhuman Primates. Evolutionary Anthropology.... Primate Infanticide Primate...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Primate evolution

...Anatomical Features that Occurred During Primate Evolution Bipedal movement is an anatomical feature that came about as aresult of extensive skeletal changes in the body structure of early primates. The changes surfaced during the evolution of Australopithecus and Homo erectus. The change marked a transition from locomotion by use of four limbs to movement using the two hind limbs. The changes in the skeletal structure include alterations of the femur and the pelvic region for adequate support of the upper body weight. The big toe of the feet also becomes aligned with the other toes to enable the...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Evolution Of Primate Locomotion And Body Configuration for FREE!

Contact Us