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Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development - Essay Example

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Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Among various signaling molecules, Cytokines are those that were initially characterized as elements of the immune response. However, they are now been established to have a pleiotropic effects in various facets of body function in disease and health…
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Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development
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Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Among various signaling molecules, Cytokines are those that were initially characterized as elements of the immune response. However, they are now been established to have a pleiotropic effects in various facets of body function in disease and health. Cytokines are liberated by various cells and are utilized extensively in the intercellular communications to bring out diverse activities, admitting complex processes involved in the ontogenetic growth of the brain. This article basically is a review that illustrates the factors that are engaged in the regulation of brain growth as well as discusses the current findings searching the signaling pathways of cytokines during the progression of central nervous system. The main parts of this article include the embryologic progression of the CNS, the cytokines and the role of cytokines signaling in the functioning and development of the central nervous system. These parts are briefly discussed below. The main findings of this review are that the existing data suggest that neurotropic cytokines along with their signaling pathways may turn into targets for remedial intervention in processes resulting in death and dysfunction of neurons due to toxicity, disease or trauma. The nervous system makes itself propagation of its various elements from a single progenitor, producing an energetic self-regulating system. The CNS (Central nervous system) used to be believed as an immune-favored organ because of various facts, like missing a lymphatic system, owning a BBB (blood brain barrier), and bearing a very frail component manifestation of MHC antigens demanded for tissue rejection and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, keeping in view the established immune cells’ capability to cross the BBB between activation and that the immune response can be generated through resident cells within the brain the old concept is no more valid. Moreover, the molecules responsible for signaling immune response have been established to be existent prematurely during the development of brain and participate in the progression of growth process. Cytokines is the term employed to denote the immune-modulating agents like IFNs (interferons) and ILs (interleukins). These are cell signaling, small protein molecules, initially characterized as the constituents of the immune response, but now they have been established to perform a much extensive role in the various facets of physiology. They can exert their impact either directly or indirectly in the CNS (Central Nervous System). Direct action here refers to the impacts resulting due to the presence of cytokines in the brain and around the numerous neuronal cells while indirect pathways include the secondary impacts resulting due to the action of cytokine on other. Cytokines can be classified on the basis of their functions as either Th-2 type, anti-inflammatory (inhibitory) or Th1-type, pro-inflammatory (stimulatory) contingent upon the terminal outcome of their impacts. This review assesses events involving intercellular communication of neuropoietic cytokines and their critical role in regulation of growth by nervous system during the development of nervous. Since the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in explaining the transmission of signals by cytokines through pathways that employ STAT proteins and tyrosine kinases (JAK proteins). Collecting evidence suggests that the STAT, potential transcription factors, function a crucial role in the signaling pathways of cytokine. . Numerous members of STAT family have been discovered, and currently it is comprised of seven members including STAT1-4, STAT6, STAT5a and STAT5b while the JAK family comprises of four members including TYK2 and JAK1-3. An essential role has been attributed to STAT proteins in biological processes mediated by cytokine. Cytokines play a fundamental role in keeping self-renewal in the ES (embryonic stem cells) in mouse via a component of IL-6 kind of cytokine family known as LIF. This family has been regarded as composed of members with anti- as well as pro-inflammatory characteristics and its member play a major role in the haematopoiesis, immune responses and in acute-phase of the organism. Genes involved in survival, apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation are targeted by these cytokines. This family of cytokines is vital for neurodevelopment of the fetus and participates in the neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous. An important role is played by cytokines in the disease and health of an organism as their functions has been identified in pregnancy, infection, muscle, bone and cardiovascular processes and these signaling proteins are essential to various brain processes. The neuropoietic cytokines along with their receptors are articulated physiologically in the cells of the CNS and are crucial for function and development of the brain. These cytokines pleiotropic, overlapping effects on an array of various cell types and trigger target genes engaged in apoptosis, survival, differentiation and proliferation along with inhibition of differentiation. They have been discovered as growth factors and fundamental components in gliogenesis. Moreover, these cytokines have been found to play signaling functions in the normal development of brain in adults, particularly in the regulation of fate of stem cells and neurogenesis. Neurotropic cytokines along with their accompanying signaling pathways are vital factors engaged in the regulation of brain growth and its repair. Therefore, they could serve as targets for remedial interventions in the future during the death and functional loss of neurons that happens as a consequence of some toxicity, disease or trauma. Cytokines have more roles, as fundamental regulators of synaptic plasticity and of several behaviors; components that have trophic consequences on neurons subsets (Mousa and Bakhiet 13931–13957). Works Cited Mousa, Alyaa and Bakhiet, Moiz. “Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development.” Int J Mol Sci. 14.7 [July 2013]: 13931–13957. Print. Read More
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