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Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development - Essay Example

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Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Among various signaling molecules, Cytokines are those that were initially characterized as elements of the immune response. However, they are now been established to have a pleiotropic effects in various facets of body function in disease and health…
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Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development
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"Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development"

The main parts of this article include the embryologic progression of the CNS, the cytokines and the role of cytokines signaling in the functioning and development of the central nervous system. These parts are briefly discussed below. The main findings of this review are that the existing data suggest that neurotropic cytokines along with their signaling pathways may turn into targets for remedial intervention in processes resulting in death and dysfunction of neurons due to toxicity, disease or trauma. The nervous system makes itself propagation of its various elements from a single progenitor, producing an energetic self-regulating system. The CNS (Central nervous system) used to be believed as an immune-favored organ because of various facts, like missing a lymphatic system, owning a BBB (blood brain barrier), and bearing a very frail component manifestation of MHC antigens demanded for tissue rejection and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, keeping in view the established immune cells’ capability to cross the BBB between activation and that the immune response can be generated through resident cells within the brain the old concept is no more valid. Moreover, the molecules responsible for signaling immune response have been established to be existent prematurely during the development of brain and participate in the progression of growth process. Cytokines is the term employed to denote the immune-modulating agents like IFNs (interferons) and ILs (interleukins). These are cell signaling, small protein molecules, initially characterized as the constituents of the immune response, but now they have been established to perform a much extensive role in the various facets of physiology. They can exert their impact either directly or indirectly in the CNS (Central Nervous System). Direct action here refers to the impacts resulting due to the presence of cytokines in the brain and around the numerous neuronal cells while indirect pathways include the secondary impacts resulting due to the action of cytokine on other. Cytokines can be classified on the basis of their functions as either Th-2 type, anti-inflammatory (inhibitory) or Th1-type, pro-inflammatory (stimulatory) contingent upon the terminal outcome of their impacts. This review assesses events involving intercellular communication of neuropoietic cytokines and their critical role in regulation of growth by nervous system during the development of nervous. Since the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in explaining the transmission of signals by cytokines through pathways that employ STAT proteins and tyrosine kinases (JAK proteins). Collecting evidence suggests that the STAT, potential transcription factors, function a crucial role in the signaling pathways of cytokine. . Numerous members of STAT family have been discovered, and currently it is comprised of seven members including STAT1-4, STAT6, STAT5a and STAT5b while the JAK family comprises of four members including TYK2 and JAK1-3. An essential role has been attributed to STAT proteins in biological processes mediated by cytokine. Cytokines play a fundamental role in keeping self-renewal in the ES (embryonic stem cells) in mouse via a component of Read More
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