Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Among various signaling molecules, Cytokines are those that were initially characterized as elements of the immune response. However, they are now been established to have a pleiotropic effects in various facets of body function in disease and health…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.1% of users find it useful
Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development"

Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Among various signaling molecules, Cytokines are those that were initially characterized as elements of the immune response. However, they are now been established to have a pleiotropic effects in various facets of body function in disease and health. Cytokines are liberated by various cells and are utilized extensively in the intercellular communications to bring out diverse activities, admitting complex processes involved in the ontogenetic growth of the brain. This article basically is a review that illustrates the factors that are engaged in the regulation of brain growth as well as discusses the current findings searching the signaling pathways of cytokines during the progression of central nervous system. The main parts of this article include the embryologic progression of the CNS, the cytokines and the role of cytokines signaling in the functioning and development of the central nervous system. These parts are briefly discussed below. The main findings of this review are that the existing data suggest that neurotropic cytokines along with their signaling pathways may turn into targets for remedial intervention in processes resulting in death and dysfunction of neurons due to toxicity, disease or trauma. The nervous system makes itself propagation of its various elements from a single progenitor, producing an energetic self-regulating system. The CNS (Central nervous system) used to be believed as an immune-favored organ because of various facts, like missing a lymphatic system, owning a BBB (blood brain barrier), and bearing a very frail component manifestation of MHC antigens demanded for tissue rejection and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, keeping in view the established immune cells’ capability to cross the BBB between activation and that the immune response can be generated through resident cells within the brain the old concept is no more valid. Moreover, the molecules responsible for signaling immune response have been established to be existent prematurely during the development of brain and participate in the progression of growth process. Cytokines is the term employed to denote the immune-modulating agents like IFNs (interferons) and ILs (interleukins). These are cell signaling, small protein molecules, initially characterized as the constituents of the immune response, but now they have been established to perform a much extensive role in the various facets of physiology. They can exert their impact either directly or indirectly in the CNS (Central Nervous System). Direct action here refers to the impacts resulting due to the presence of cytokines in the brain and around the numerous neuronal cells while indirect pathways include the secondary impacts resulting due to the action of cytokine on other. Cytokines can be classified on the basis of their functions as either Th-2 type, anti-inflammatory (inhibitory) or Th1-type, pro-inflammatory (stimulatory) contingent upon the terminal outcome of their impacts. This review assesses events involving intercellular communication of neuropoietic cytokines and their critical role in regulation of growth by nervous system during the development of nervous. Since the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in explaining the transmission of signals by cytokines through pathways that employ STAT proteins and tyrosine kinases (JAK proteins). Collecting evidence suggests that the STAT, potential transcription factors, function a crucial role in the signaling pathways of cytokine. . Numerous members of STAT family have been discovered, and currently it is comprised of seven members including STAT1-4, STAT6, STAT5a and STAT5b while the JAK family comprises of four members including TYK2 and JAK1-3. An essential role has been attributed to STAT proteins in biological processes mediated by cytokine. Cytokines play a fundamental role in keeping self-renewal in the ES (embryonic stem cells) in mouse via a component of IL-6 kind of cytokine family known as LIF. This family has been regarded as composed of members with anti- as well as pro-inflammatory characteristics and its member play a major role in the haematopoiesis, immune responses and in acute-phase of the organism. Genes involved in survival, apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation are targeted by these cytokines. This family of cytokines is vital for neurodevelopment of the fetus and participates in the neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous. An important role is played by cytokines in the disease and health of an organism as their functions has been identified in pregnancy, infection, muscle, bone and cardiovascular processes and these signaling proteins are essential to various brain processes. The neuropoietic cytokines along with their receptors are articulated physiologically in the cells of the CNS and are crucial for function and development of the brain. These cytokines pleiotropic, overlapping effects on an array of various cell types and trigger target genes engaged in apoptosis, survival, differentiation and proliferation along with inhibition of differentiation. They have been discovered as growth factors and fundamental components in gliogenesis. Moreover, these cytokines have been found to play signaling functions in the normal development of brain in adults, particularly in the regulation of fate of stem cells and neurogenesis. Neurotropic cytokines along with their accompanying signaling pathways are vital factors engaged in the regulation of brain growth and its repair. Therefore, they could serve as targets for remedial interventions in the future during the death and functional loss of neurons that happens as a consequence of some toxicity, disease or trauma. Cytokines have more roles, as fundamental regulators of synaptic plasticity and of several behaviors; components that have trophic consequences on neurons subsets (Mousa and Bakhiet 13931–13957). Works Cited Mousa, Alyaa and Bakhiet, Moiz. “Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development.” Int J Mol Sci. 14.7 [July 2013]: 13931–13957. Print. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development Essay”, n.d.)
Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development Essay. Retrieved from
(Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Essay)
Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Essay.
“Role of Cytokine Signaling During Nervous System Development Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development

Nervous System description

...? Nervous System Nervous System (Human nervous system, n. d) The nervous system is one of the vital organ systems in animals which transmit signals between different parts of the body. All the organs in our body rely nervous system heavily for their functioning. Just like the central processing unit of a computer, nervous system can be considered as a master control unit inside our body. Basic function of nervous system is the controlling and coordination of body...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Nervous system

...?The Brain The nervous system is the most important system in the human body. It is in charge of coordinating all aspects of the body from processes such as our heart beating to typing a paper. This is achieved through a network of extensive neurons, which are located throughout the body with the highest concentration residing in the brain. Communication is achieved through electrochemical signals, which cause a release in neurotransmitters. The brain is a highly organized structure with sections called lobes. The lobes are the temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and frontal lobes. Each is charged with a specific cognitive function and even though they are...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper

Shared signaling system of personality

...Shared Signaling System of Personality Traits Shared Signaling System of Personality This article documents the findings of an investigation which holds that many attributes or traits of personality are signaled on the face of an individual (Ekman, & Rosenberg, 2005). The article further holds that this signaling system can be traced back to the common ancestor of the human and chimpanzees (Freeman, & Gosling, 2010). The ancestor had a signaling system which after many years of evolution is still present among the two species. The study proved this assertion by using participants to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Nervous system

...development to occur. In connection to the practical with the central nervous system of maggots, it is significant to note that Maggots have one unique feature: that is they keep on recycling especially when it comes to their neurons. Equipped with a nervous system that helps them to crawl and feed, they change into intricate animals with sophisticated behaviors and sensory system such as flying and walking. Maggots lack motor neurons that can make the transition into adult. During metamorphosis, the neurons start to spread and seek out adult links. In order to understand the central nervous...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Human Nervous System

...include retina and the cranial nerves as part of the Central Nervous System. Along with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (Hickman, et al., 2008), the Central Nervous System (CNS) has an extremely important function to play in the behavior controlling. The Central Nervous System is enclosed in the dorsal cavity, right alongside with the brain that is contained in the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord that is contained in the spinal cavity (Maton, et al., 1993). The Central Nervous System has the responsibility of the task sending information, receiving information,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

The Autonomic Nervous System

...fibers release norepinephrine or acetylcholine whose effects can either be stimulatory or inhibitory. The neurotransmitter effects within the autonomic nervous system on target organs are dependent on the neurotransmitter released. Additionally, such effects are dependent on the type of receptors expressed on the effector organs. The divisions of the autonomic nervous system serve similar visceral organs but cause opposite effects. These divisions exemplified by parasympathetic and sympathetic categories help in maintaining homeostasis. Precisely, the sympathetic division mobilizes the body during activity while the parasympathetic division conserves the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Central Nervous System

...Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Question Sensorineural hearing loss is where the cause of hearing loss originates from the vestibulocochlear nerve, the interior ear (Hoehn & Marieb 2010, 543). Conductive hearing loss, in contrast, happens when there is an issue of conducting sound waves along the route through the outer ear. In the Rinne test, with regards to Sensorineural hearing loss, one can expect to find the air condition and bone equally reduced. Also, the results that a person can expect to find with this test are normal. Finally, with regards to conductive hearing loss and the Rinne test, a person can expect to find the conditions of the bone and...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

Nervous System Research

... that nervous system modules are active local circuits, rather than mere anatomical entities. During construction, the specific activities that characterize each module are dependent on both extrinsic and intrinsic neuronal components, its phylogenetic history, and functional roles (Paxinos & Mai, 2013). Numerous intra-cellular and cellular phenomena that are common in most vertebrates underlie how the modules are constructed. In fact, the glial and neuronal interactions, as well as how they interplay with extra-cellular space environment is dependent on molecular families that have broad phyletic occurrences (Paxinos & Mai, 2013). The construction mechanism is accountable to a large degree on for the immense widespread incidence... ...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Nervous system

...Nervous System: Describe how you will perform a neurological assessment. A patient with unilateral facial drooping should be neurologically assessed for all cranial nerves. The patient should be asked if she has any trouble smelling or tasting. She should also be asked to follow the finger of the examiner which is held out in front of her between her eyes. She should be asked to give a broad smile. She should be asked to widely open her mouth so that the examiner could check the movement of uvula. She should be asked to protrude her tongue and then, it should be noted if the tongue deviates to left or right. Determine if upper or lower neuron disease is the cause of her complaint. The patient’s face in...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

Nervous System Anatomy Senses

.... A. An afterimage can be explained as a false image perceived by the human eye when the person shifts away his view from the object or image but can still see it for a fraction of a second. The origins of visual after images are believed to be lag in the sensory nerves of the human beings to register quick visual changes in the surroundings. Q4. Describe the relationship between hearing and balance.  A. Hearing and balancing are inter related as ears not only control hearing but also balance; therefore any hearing deficiency can lead to problems with balancing. Problems with hearing can result in failure to register movements, which can eventually create issues with balance. Reference Dean, C., Rosen, S., Mathe, E., Bjur, M.,...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Role of Cytokine Signaling during Nervous System Development for FREE!

Contact Us