Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The general applications of monoclonal antibodies Name: Institution: Introduction Monoclonal antibodies refer to the monospecific antibodies variant formed from the matching immune cells, which are cloned from an exclusive parent cell. They are different from polyclonal antibodies, because this poly-type is formed using a variety of immune cell variants…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.5% of users find it useful
Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples"

Download file to see previous pages They have received usage in the areas of medicine, molecular biology and biochemistry; when used in the field of medicine, they are identified from the end of the name of the non-proprietary medicine, is identified because it contains –mab in its name. This paper will explore the general applications of monoclonal antibodies, and the discussion will offer more emphasis to their limitations and advantages. Discussion Monoclonal antibodies are used in the field of medicine for the detection of different varieties of toxins, drugs or hormones. When used for this general purpose, they are aimed at the target area in the body of the individual. For example, when used to detect or stop the growth of cancer cells, these antibodies are targeted at the specific proteins found on the surfaces of some cancer cells. When injected into the body of the individual, these monoclonal antibodies locate the cancer cells and then attach themselves to the given cancer cells or antigens (Kontermann, 2005). In some cases, they are used on their own and in others conjugated with other substances. When naked monoclonal antibodies are injected into the body, they bind themselves to the target receptors or the antigens found on the cancer cells being targeted (Yarbo, Wujcik and Gobel, 2011). The advantages of using monoclonal antibodies include that when they are used to target some types of cancer cells, they will attach themselves to the particular receptors of the cancer cells, and then they stop the continuation of the growth of cancer cells. Some of the examples used for this purpose of treating cancerous growth include rituximab (Biburger, Weth and Wels, 2005). Rituximab is used for this curative purpose to treat some types of B-cell on-Hodgkin lymphoma. The second monoclonal antibody type is trastuzumab, which is used for the treatment of HER2-positive cancerous growths on breasts (American Cancer Society, 2008). The disadvantage of using monoclonal antibodies is that they can be attached to toxins, which are made from plants or bacteria. In the case that they are used to transport these toxins, the toxic element is likely to affect the targeted cancer cells as well as the normal cells of the patient (Yarbo, Wujcik and Gobel, 2011, p. 558-560). Towards resolving this issue, researchers are in the process of researching for antigens that affect the cancerous cells only, and not the normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies are used in the medical processes of radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunodetection of cancer, where some of the new variants of the antibodies can be targeted at the cell membranes of the cancerous cells of a patient (Goldenberg et al., 2006). The advantage of monoclonal antibodies when used for this purpose includes that they help in enhancing the background ratios of tumours and they also aid the delivery of higher dosages, as compared to the case when they are directly conjugated for use with other compounds (Rossi et al., 2006). The disadvantages of using monoclonal antibodies in this manner include that the functionality of many of the drugs that have been developed is not approved by health and drug testing organizations. One of the new cancer drugs based on the working of monoclonal antibody technology is Ritoxin, which was approved for use in health institutions, by the FDA in November 1997 (Salvana and Salata, 2009). Monoclonal ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Review the General Applications of Monoclonal antibodies,emphasising Essay)
“Review the General Applications of Monoclonal antibodies,emphasising Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples

Examples of e-Procurement applications and tools

...applications as some lack some specifications, thus failing to meet their needs (Gattorna 2003, p.188). The top hindrances to the successful adoption of e-procurement revolve around enabling suppliers to support e-transactions, besides generating and maintaining electronic product information. Factors Influencing e-procurement Adoption and Use Despite the massive benefits that can be derived from e-procurement technologies, their adoption is still at the infant stage. An assortment of factors may affect a firm’s decision to adopt and implement e-procurement ICT. There are several variables that influence a firm’s decision to implement e-procurement technologies. The variables include...
14 Pages(3500 words)Case Study

Literature review on competitive advantage

...?Literature Review of Competitive Advantage Introduction The technological trends have changed the mode of life on the planet. Conventional business processes and operations have been replaced with newer forms of strategic planning that have become essential for organizations to meet the challenges of the changing times. The scope of service and products is no longer confined to limited regions; companies have to compete in a global market where the consumer has greater awareness and access to global businesses to fulfill their needs. In such demanding times, effective strategic management is required to ensure that the company performs better than its competitors, whether local or global, and continues to retain its market share... . The...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay


...?The Response to Concerned Citizens With a diplomatic tone, one can explain that in science, questions answered just invite further questions. In thedetermination of disease pathophysiology, as more researchers work on the field, more and more are discovered about the intricacies of mechanism. For example, if exposure to sunlight increases the risk for skin cancer, the next step will be to determine at what levels will they cause harm to the human body? No one can claim to have all the answers for the risk factors involved in the development of the disease. Such will be too long and too extensive to do. As such, mathematical models should be given room for error when it comes to their limitations. Making mathematical models depend... on the...
3 Pages(750 words)Case Study

Movie Review: The General

...? The General The General Introduction The General, released on 5th February, 1927 is a splendid and captivating movie to watch. Directed and written by Buster Keaton and Clyde Bruckman, the movie became a success after it got released. In the movie, Buster Keaton featured as the main character, Johnnie, a conductor of the train, The General. Johnnie was in love with Marion Mack (Annabelle), though she rejected him since he had also been turned down to serve in the army at that time (Timothy & Patricia, 2012). In The General, a number of dimensions can be analyzed. Movies often display a number of dimensions like character, setting, cinematography, sound,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Movie Review


... for de-icing aircrafts at airports as it lowers the freezing point of water. Recent applications include use as a humectant and a preservative. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations and also in electronic cigars2. The structure of 1,2-Propanediol comprises of three carbons with a stereogenic center at the central carbon3. It exists in two racemic forms: S and R as shown in figure 1 below. Figure 1: Chemical structure (S and R form) of 1,2-propanediol 3 1,2-Propanediol as well as 1,3-Propanediol can be manufactured though bioengineered microorganisms. By turning on and off some genes, it is possible to make the microorganism overproduce a specific metabolic product. As shown in figure 2, the intermediate metabolism... was not...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Monoclonal antibodies

... linked cancer with different antibodies that monoclonal antibodies, which is specific, cannot fight. However, with different monoclonal antibodies, some cancers are cured. Types of monoclonal antibodies There are two types of monoclonal antibodies. Naked monoclonal antibodies act by attaching itself to the antigen present on the cancer cells while others bind themselves on the antigens on the non-cancerous cells or to proteins that floats freely (Simmons, 2005, 98).These antibodies work in a completely different ways. While others work to boost one’s immunity against cancer cells, others work through preventing the action of some specific proteins that make the cancer cell to grow. An example of the antibody that boosts immunity... ...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Bispecific antibodies construct and produce Bispecific antibodies was the quadroma technology" (Stockmeyer, B. et Al). It is based on the somatic fusion of two different hybridoma cell lines expressing murine monoclonal antibodies with the desired specificities of the Bispecific antibody. Because of the random pairing of two different "'Ig heavy and light chains within the resulting hybrid-hybridoma (or quadroma) cell line, up to ten different immunoglobulin species are generated of which only one is the functional Bispecific. Among the first Bispecific antibodies were constructs designed to redirect T cells against cancer target cells"...
23 Pages(5750 words)Research Paper

Specific Applications of PR & PA

...Specific Applications of Public Relations & Public Affairs Introduction The role of public relations and public affairs in an organization is indispensable in the modern business environment. It has been accepted that both these managerial functions/ wing in an organization can have a profound impact upon establishing and maintaining an eternal relationship with the audience/ customers of the business entity. Apart from business organizations/ for profit organizations, these have a big role in the case of non-profit companies in the present business world. In this context, the present essay is an attempt to discuss the importance of both Public Relations and Public Affairs in the modern organization, both for profit and non-profit... be told...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Love Using specific artistic examples define Neoclassicism

... Neo icism Neo icism was a prevalent and a powerful movement in painting and other visual arts that set itsbase in the 1760s, got to its peak between 1780s and 1790s, and remained in existence until the late 1840s and early 1850s. In efforts to depict classical themes and subjects matters, it took the form of austere linear design and used archaeological settings and costumes. Authors document that neoclassical was initiated partly by the sensuous and frivolous decorative Rococo style reactions that had governed European art from the 1720s (Palmer 12). It is argued that the new archaeological discoveries gave neoclassicism a significant impetus more specifically the buried Roman cities. To a certain extent, the assertion... that...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

The Antinuclear Antibodies Test

..., at a 1:80 dilution, a positive ANA-HEp-2 test is reported in about 13.3% healthy individuals with no evidence of an autoimmune condition (Mariz et al.). Therefore, in absence of clinical indication for ARD, ANA is generally not tested, since a positive ANA report in absence of clinical symptoms for ARD is of low diagnostic utility (Marin et al., 2009). Chen et al. (1992) showed that the use of streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique using streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex on HEp-2 cells has better specificity than IIF for the detection of ANA. However, this technique failed to emerge as the standard test due to several limitations. Several other techniques are widely...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Review the general applications of monoclonal antibodies,emphasising their advantage and limitations with specific examples for FREE!

Contact Us