A group of scientists from various medical departments namely; medicine and histopathology, pediatric gastroenterology, child and adolescents psychiatry, neurology and radiology; performed a medical research that was later retracted. …
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A J Wakefield was the leader in the medical research known as “ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive development disorder in children”. The research involved consecutively examining a series of children who experienced both chronic enterocolitis and regressive development disorder. The research incorporated 12 children, 11 of them being boys while only one was a girl. Additionally, their ages ranged from 3 to 10 years while their mean age was 6 years (Wakefield et al, 1998: p1). The methodology involved referring the 12 children who had experienced loss of acquired skills, diarrhea, and abdominal pain to a paediatric gastroenterology unit. The children were put through various assessments namely; gastroenterological, developmental, and neurological. Moreover, when the children were under sedation, procedures such as; magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), lumbar puncture, and electroencephalography, ileocolonoscopy and biopsy sampling were done on them. Continuing on, A J Wakefield et al established that, there was an association between gastrointenstinal disease and developmental regression (Wakefield et al, 1998: p1). The research in question was centered on studying children who initially experience normal growth, but later lost their acquired skills such as communication. Consequently, they showed symptoms of gastrointestinal disease such as; diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating and food intolerance. The study population that was selected by Wakefield et al for this medical experiment, entailed referrals from the department of pediatric gastroenterology. Moreover, the study population had a history of pervasive developmental disorder, intestinal symptoms and loss acquired skills. The research involved conducting clinical and laboratory investigations, histology; the researchers also acquired ethical approval and consent before commencing the procedures (Wakefield et al, 1998: p2). Clinical investigations incorporated taking histories, neurological and psychiatric assessments, reviewing patients’ developmental records. The clinical investigations also comprised performing ileocolonoscopy while sedating with pethidine and midazolam, but that was after bowel preparation. Biopsy samples of paired frozen and formalin-fixed mucosals were extracted from the terminal ileum, colons, and the rectum. Video and still images were used to record the procedures, which were later compared to images taken during other paediatric colonoscopies conducted previously; a total of seven. The indication that confirmed the procedure was on the right tract, emerged when the physician examined the videos and images, and reported that the terminal ileum had normal appearances. While still under sedation, the clinical investigations were concluded through performing; electroencephalography (EEG) on sensory evoked potentials and brain stem auditory, cerebral magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), and lumbar puncture (Wakefield et al, 1998: p3). The laboratory investigations in the medical research entailed measuring the thyroid function, cerebrospinal-fluid lactate, and serum long-chain fatty acids. The above procedures were aimed at excluding various causes of childhood neurodegenerative disease. Urine samples of 8 of children (randomly selected) were taken and urinary methylmalonic acid measured and later compared to 14 age-matched and sex-matched normal controls. The analysis of methylmalonic-acid zones from cases and controls, involved digitally scanning chromatograms on a computer (Wakefield et al, 1998: p3). Using two-sample t test, the researchers were able to compare the urinary methylmal
ated Effect Estimates by type of Defect, and Unadjusted Estimates (Ors) for Maternal Diabetes, Use of Multivitamin Supplements During the Periconceptional Period, and Selected Nonsyndromic Birth Defects (Correa, 2003).
It appears that the article and the researchers are very credible, but the report lacks complete information when it comes to reporting the results of the study.
Psychological conditions prevail in everyone, a study of the conditions help in establishing the employee conditions during interviews and obtain information from criminals as well as treat mentally retarded people. In as much as psychological research has remained helpful in various fraternities, it gets influenced by many factors with the key one being historical time of undertaking the study.
MMR Controversy has been named as one of the most damaging frauds in the history. The controversy involves a presentation of false facts and manipulated medical research by Dr. Andrew Wakefield and his co-researchers on the subject of the relationship between onset of autism and use of vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella.
This paper seeks to re-assess the previous reports on quality of health care services and the different agencies involved in upholding such quality. It shall discuss the functions of such agencies and the implications of quality health care services to
Amongst these, it seems that medical abbreviation and terminologies used by doctors, especially in their prescriptions is the culprit. These include all internal communications, verbal or telephone, computer-generated labels, labels for medication whereabouts, medication orders, medication administering records, as well as pharmacy computer entry screens.
Mumps Encephalitis develops in 260 per 100 000 patients and 0.1 to 15% suffer from Meningitis. In Rubella, Encephalitis develops in 13 out of 100 000 patients. Hence, it is of utmost public health importance that these diseases are prevented by Immunization thereby reducing Mortality and Morbidity.
Each group is sustained from the professionalism in its specific area and they are closely in relation to one other. Practice has shown that if one group fails either to work effectively or to cooperate with other groups, the entire system tends to collapse; global function is dependent from participation of each group.
This presentation outlines how bride price for African women has affected the use of these women as clinical research specimens. The presentation will dwell on the reasons why African women- bride prices impact negatively on the consent derived for research. I will
The use of animals has been widespread across the world for the medical research and testing. There are a lot of health hazards and diseases which can be tested only on living beings. Before developing any treatment, the researchers have the duty of detecting the health problems associated with it.
The researchers need to test the animals to know more about the health problems and the probable diseases that may occur in the human body. This allows the researchers to know more about the genetics of humans and to develop new medicines. Animals are considered as a good research subject for some reasons:
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