Coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever, is a disease that normally affects one’s lungs. Coccidioides cause the illness, which is a fungus. A hardy strain of this fungus has the ability to live for long under harsh conditions like drought and extreme heat and cold (Williams 41). …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Extract of sample "Coccidioidomycosis Valley Fever"
Download file to see previous pages
It is spread through the air when its spores are disturbed by wind. It is estimated that 150,000 infections take place annually in the US, although roughly half of this do not present any symptoms. The fungus is found in South America, Central America, Mexico, and South Western US since these areas weather conditions and dust that allows for the growth of Coccidioides. People get this illness when they inhale dust that contains the spores of this fungus. This spores spread into the air when dust containing the fungus undergoes disturbance through construction work, digging, or strong winds (Williams 41). The illness is hard to prevent, and no vaccine exists at present, although efforts towards its development are continuing. This research paper seeks to use journal articles and boos to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, types, diagnosis, treatment, complications, and use in biological warfare of Coccidioidomycosis. Region of Primary Location The map provided below shows areas in the Americas where mass testing has revealed valley fever as an endemic illness. Taking note of the fact that two thirds of cases in the United States are found in Arizona with Tucson and Phoenix being the most affected is essential. In California, the endemic area is Kern County (Tabor 27). There are also areas of high endemic occurrences in Northwestern Mexico, South America, and Central America. In addition, it has been known for environmental conditions to spread spores across hundreds of miles and cause infection. The mass testing that identified the primary areas has not been done again for more than 50 years. Valley fever is restricted to America with an approximated 150,000 infections every year with the infection rates in the rest of the Americas currently unknown (Tabor 27). Approximately 25,000 new cases annually in the US lead to ~75 deaths annually. There are occasional epidemics with case numbers rising in Arizona, which may be related to people immigrating there. Outside of the United States, the most affected nations are Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Guatemala, and Mexico. (Williams 18) Epidemiology Valley fever is confined to areas that lie between 400N and 400S. The organism is particularly supported by dry and dusty soils in the lower sonaran life zone. Incidences of the organism’s occurrence increases significantly in periods where there is heavy rain followed by dry periods (Einstein & Catanzaro 23). The fungus is known to infect majority of the mammals, especially cats, dogs, and humans. Species such as marine mammals like the sea otter, llamas, and livestock have been found to be especially vulnerable to the valley fever fungus. Pathogenesis The valley fever fungus exists in the form of filaments in lab environments and soil. Cells that are found within the hyphae, over time, degenerate and form arthroconidia that are barrel shaped cells (Stevens 1079). These cells are light in weight and are transported by wind where they are easily inhalable sans knowledge of the individual. Once these cells arrive in the individual’s alveoli, they become larger, developing internal septations, whose structure is referred to as spherule and develop into endospores. Once these spherules rupture, the endosperms are released with the cycle being repeated, spreading a local infection. The nodules that at times form around the spherules could rupture, and their contents released, into the bronchus, to form cavities with thin walls. These cavities led to persistent coughs, haemoptysis, and chest pain (Stevens 1079). In people whose immunity is compromised, this infection could spread through the vascular system. Presentation Valley fever tends to mimic atypical
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
During the period of war, the Continental army had lost a series of wars to the British army. To this end, winter season fast approaching and both armies put a break on the wars to look for a place to camp.
The concepts of capacity utilization and forecasting techniques are very important for any business venture. Indeed, an entrepreneur or businessman will only venture to invest his capital in a business if he knows and understands that it will give him a good return on the capital invested.
The interviewing panel conducted the interview at the Cumberland location areas. The interview comprised of both non-technical as well as technical queries. According to the committee, about 70% of the interview score would be the process of interview and 30% would comprise of the experience of the applicant.
The etiological agents are almost always found in the environment and can infect numerous species of mammals and a few reptiles. Epidemiological studies show that the etiological agent occurs in soils found in regions of the southwestern United States, Mexico, and some regions of Central and South America.
The most recommended test for tuberculosis is the tuberculin skin test also known as Mantoux tuberculin skin test owing to the fact that it has very little side effect in the life of the patient. The tuberculin is a form of
Entering through receptor-mediated endocytosis the virus synthesizes RNA in the cytoplasm and protein in the endoplasmic reticulum and virions released trough membrane of the cell. Interaction of virulence factor proteins with cellular receptors results in the dentritic cells endocytose the virions and subsequently disseminating them.
The ensuing years reported a number of outbreaks in the Americas and Europe. 2 The disease remained an enigma though Cuban Carlos Finlay suggested the mosquito Culex cubensis which is now called Aedes aegypti to be responsible for the spread of the disease.
Global Warming will assist the spread of dengue fever into new territories.
Dengue fever is an infectious disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There is the risk of deadly complications in the form of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome
According to the research findings, the Green Valley Bakers Company was started around ten years ago and was the brainchild of Raiz Van Dough, a third generation Dutch baker. His father had migrated to the USA following the Second World War and it was his dream to carry on his father’s and grandfather’s legacy.