CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY (Author’s name) (Institutional Affiliation) Question 1 Christopher tested positive to milk, peanut and tree nuts. The body’s immune system reacts to the proteins contained in the allergens hence causing the manufacture of immunoglobulin E to neutralize the allergens (Sichere & Wood, 2012)…
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The allergen specific test is conducted using IgE antibodies which are found in mucous membranes, lungs and even the skin. The skin prick test on the other hand is external and more of an observation of the skin’s reaction to the allergens therefore house dust termites allergen cannot be detected through it (Sicherer,2012). Question 3 The major allergens in milk are casein and whey which are the components of milk that trigger reaction with the IgE. In peanut, there is the Ara h1 which is contained in the cotyledon and looks like vicilin (Tan , Lebeck & Nehlsen-Cannarella , 2012). Peanut and tree nuts may both test positive to a test but this does not necessarily mean that the said person is allergic to both since there are false positives. This means the child can test positive but still eat the food without having any problem. It is a kind of seed storage that triggers the reaction with IgE. In eggs, there are the ovamucoid and ovalbumin which have been identified as the major allergens, there are lesser ones. These two are found in the egg white (Bellanti, 2011). Question 4 Th-2 cells triggers the activation of mast cells, B cells and eosinophils that produce IgE antibodies. Th-2 produces IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 and it also regulates eosinophil and B cell mediated responses. IL-17 is a group of cytokines that support inflammation that are produced by activated memory cells. This cytokine takes part in the creation of an immunological response that is dependent on Th-2 cells. This happens through the introduction of cytokines derived by Th-2 (Tan, Lebeck & Nehlsen-Cannarella, 2012).This is supported by the inflammation of the eosiniphil. The characteristics of response induced by different IL-17 all comes down to their structure. These differences therefore determine their functions biologically. Question 5 Histamine is organic and also a nitrogen compound that is normally involved in immune responses and it also regulates the physiological functions of the gut. It activates inflammatory response when it acts as a neurotransmitter. Basophils produce histamine and by studying their release assay, the physician is able to determine the main allergy/asthma.PGD2 binds to receptor PTGDR and CRTH2; it is produced by mast cells and is very critical when it comes to the development of asthma and other allergic diseases. This makes it an important aspect when treatment of an allergy victim is done. The release assay can show the intensity of the allergy hence helping the physician determine the best medication or therapy. Eosinophil Cationic Protein can also be called ribonuclease 3 and is related to allergies because when an allergic reaction occurs, there number of ECP in the body rises significantly especially in areas with inflammations. Question 6 Hygiene hypothesis states that when one is not exposed to infectious agents at an early childhood stage, their chances of being susceptible to allergic diseases since the development of their immune system is suppressed hence making them have an immune system that can barely defend the body (Tan , Lebeck & Nehlsen-Cannarella , 2012).The polarized response by Th1 is not introduced to the system early enough
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They are basically lymphocytes that are large and granular and constitute approximately 15% of the total lymphocytes in the circulation. These cells do not have T cell receptors as well as CD3 proteins. The immunoglobulins IgM and IgD are also not present on their outer surface.
There are very few patients who show no sign in skin prick test but show severe symptoms. Still skin prick test is the most valid method to be performed to check the sensitivity of an allergen
Major allergen in milk can vary from one to
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