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Describe the mechanism of transmission of an impulse along a neurone. B) Explain how the neurotransmitters allow the impulse to - Essay Example

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NERVE IMPULSE (The Mechanism of Transmission) by: Name of Student Student ID Number Presented to: (Name of Professor) Name of the University School Location Estimated Word Count: 1,054 Due on: March 10, 2013 Introduction The human species has evolved over the years into a highly-complex organism, which is why humans are called as the highest-level sentient beings around in this universe…
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Describe the mechanism of transmission of an impulse along a neurone. B) Explain how the neurotransmitters allow the impulse to
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"Describe the mechanism of transmission of an impulse along a neurone. B) Explain how the neurotransmitters allow the impulse to"

The human body is a complex or very complicated organism and one system that is not functioning properly will have adverse consequences, such as the onset of various ailments and chronic diseases. The nervous system can be considered as the most sensitive of these systems because these help humans to survive in a hostile environment, because the nervous system helps in early detection of dangers, through the perception of external and internal stimuli from all the five senses. Essential vitamins, minerals, and vital nutrients are necessary for the nervous system to function properly; additionally, these should ideally be complemented with a good diet, the recommended healthy lifestyle habits, and a regular physical, and also mental, exercise. The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal column, and the nerves, which are the highly-specialized cells called neurons, which are the cells responsible for the transmission or receiving of information from signals and stimuli. The nervous system can be grouped into its central system (composed of the brain, the spinal column, and the twelve cranial nerves, in which two pairs emerge directly from the cerebrum while ten pairs of nerves emanate lower from the brain stem), and the peripheral system (that is made up of the spinal nerves). The focus of this paper is how the nerves are able to communicate with each other by examining the manner of transmission; in other words, how signals are sent and received by the cells. A corollary discussion is the role of neurotransmitters which utilize chemicals and electricity. Discussion To better understand how neurons are able to transmit signals and communicate with each other, it is best to learn a few basic things about the structure of a nerve cell, or a neuron. It is composed of a nucleus (the main body of the cell), the axon, and the dendrites. The nucleus is further made up of the basic genetic information (DNA), the organelles (of mitochondria and Golgi bodies), liquid cytoplasm, and the cell membrane. A neuron is unique among body cells because its membrane can communicate with other cells via the transmission and receiving of chemical and electrical signals. The process is in turn facilitated by connections with the gaps between nerve cells known as synapses by an electrical action potential (differences in the electrical charge caused by the level of calcium ions in the neuron cell membrane). The neuron accomplishes this task of communication through its axon and dendrites. An axon is that part of a nerve cell that extends outwards to send a signal; it is the elongated fibre that protrudes from the cell body (called as soma). Its counterpart on a nearby cell is the dendrites, which receives the signal from the axon. As comparison, an axon is thinner and longer when compared to a dendrite, which is shorter but thicker in diameter. In simple terms, an axon is the output zone of the neuron (sender), while the dendrites are the input zones (the receivers). There is a very tiny gap between an axon and a dendrite, and the signal is sent or transmitted by the use of electrical signals, in which the gap (synapse) is bridged by jumping across it. It is just like an ordinary but incomplete electrical circuit, but this time, the neurotransmitter is sent across when an action potential Read More
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