Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Lycosidae ( wolf spider) - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The orthognath chelicerae is considered to be the pleiomorphic condition of all spiders. Most of the currently existing spiders belong to the suborder opisthteles, characterized by the absence of segmentation of abdomen and nervous system. It is made up of the 1) baboon spiders and its allies (Mygalomorphae) and 2) Aranaeomorphae, which is referred to as true or labidognath spiders…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.2% of users find it useful
Lycosidae ( wolf spider)
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Lycosidae ( wolf spider)"

The orthognath chelicerae is considered to be the pleiomorphic condition of all spiders. Most of the currently existing spiders belong to the suborder opisthteles, characterized by the absence of segmentation of abdomen and nervous system. It is made up of the 1) baboon spiders and its allies (Mygalomorphae) and 2) Aranaeomorphae, which is referred to as true or labidognath spiders. The apomorphic aranaemorphs have a specialized web, in which piriform silk is added to stabilize the line. In addition, these spiders have female fertilization ducts. All of these characteristivs are synapomorphies,that make Aranaeomorphae monophyletic (Coddington, 2005). One of the Aranaeomorphs are the lycosoids, together with Aranaeoidea and Salticidae. For wolf spiders, the synapomorph was thought to be the grate-shaped tapetum, a reflective layer within the eye that increases sensitivity (Coddington, 2005). Aside from eye arrangements, other important characteristics are 1) lack of a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA) on the male pedipalp, 2) egg sac carried on spinnerets of females, and 3) young carried on specialised setae on the dorsal surface of the mother’s abdomen (Dondale, 1986; Griswold, 1993). Although Lycosidae and Mesothelae are considered as “big spiders” it is a polyphyletic group put together based on convergent features (Coddington, 2005). The relationships of the abovementioned groups are summarized in figure 1. The Lycosoid families are Ctenidae, Lycosidae, Miturgidae, Oxyopidae, Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Zoropsidae (Coddington, 2005). Lycosidae, together with Pisechridae, Pisauridae, Oxyopidae and Ctenidae, belong to the order Lycopsoidea. Based on the 12S and 16S rDNA sequences analyzed by maximum parsimony and neighbor joining analysis, Lycosidae, Psechridae, Pisauridae and Oxyopidae are clustered together within the Lycosoidea clade (Fig. 2). Also, the Lycosidae-Pisauridae pair formed a sister group to the clade of Oxyopidae and Psechridae (Fang, et al., 2000). Currently, spiders belonging to Lycosidae are the fourth largest spider family, and these spiders are found worldwide (Platnick, 2002). They are seen worldwide, partly because they disperse as far as hundreds of kilometers from the zone site by ballooning on long buoyant silk strands. According to Wunderlich (2004), these wolf spiders have a relatively short evolutionary history, compared to other existing insects. Lycosidae are observed to be abundant in grasslands, whether tropical or temperate, and scanty in dense forests. They seem to prefer open habitats with low vegetation, since the abovementioned observation is true even in Africa, which supposedly has the highest population of wolf spiders (Jocque, Samu & Bird, 2005). They were even seen to be abundant in savannas and herb-dense vegetation such as swamp (Warui, et al., 2005). They hide in shrubby vegetation in moments of inactivity. In fact, Pisauridae are found to be rare or absent in pitfalls, and are being caught by pan traps and Malaise traps. These predators eat arthropods, usually insects (Jocque & Alderweireldt, 2005). This preference may have been a cause or a product of their evolutionary history. Since the earliest fossil record of Lycosidae was dated back to Miocene period, during which time the grassland had also been spreading, it is believed that these wolf spiders co-evolved with grasslands (Penney, 2004), and adapted to this environment by losing typical hunter adaptations, such as grip even on smooth surfaces. Since wolf spiders are hunters, they have lost the third claw, which is common among web-dwelling spiders (Jocque & Alderweireldt, 2005). They also do not have claw tufts, which should have provided perfect grip on smooth surfaces, as is what happens in Ctenidae (Kesel, Martin & Seidl, 2003). However, since grasses and herbs have rough surfaces, claw tuft is not necessary for good grip. References Dondale, C. D. (1986). The subfamilies of wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae). Actas X Congreso Internacional de Aracnologia, Jaca, Espana, 1, pp. 327–332. Griswold, C. E. (1993): Investigations into the phylogeny of the lycosoid spiders and their kin (Arachnida: Araneae: Lycosoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 539, pp. 1–39. Jocque, R. & Alderweildt, M. (2005). Lycosidae: the grassland spiders. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, Suppl. 1, pp. 125-130. Jocque R., Samu, F., & Bird, T. (2005). Density of spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Ivory Coast rainforests. Journal of Zoology of London, 266, pp. 105-110. Kesel A. B., Martin, A., & Seidl, T. (2003). Adhesion measurements on the attachment devices of the jumping spider Evarcha arcuata. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, pp. 2733-2738. Warui C. M., Villet, M. H., Young, T. P., & Jocque, R. (2005). Influence of grazing by large mammals on the spider community of a Kenyan Savanna. Journal of Arachnology, 22, pp. 269-279. Wunderlich, J. (2004). Fossil spiders in amber and copal. Hirschberg-Leutershausen, Joerg Wunderlich Verlag, 3A, p. 1908. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Lycosidae ( wolf spider) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Lycosidae ( Wolf Spider) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Lycosidae ( Wolf Spider) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Lycosidae ( wolf spider)

Unruly Spider

...?  Major Facts Allen Jones is the supply manager of tooling and subcontract material at Alex Precision Manufacturing Company. This company received arejection notice from the inspection department on thirty-two spider gears. It was rejected because the holes on the bores were not polished and the magnaflux mark was not legible. Allen brought to the attention of the chief inspector that there were no drawings calling for a finish on the bore. The engineer disagreed and felt that any professional would know to give the bores a smooth finish. Mr. Speed at Speedy Tool Company furnished the parts and checked the dimensions of the spider gears with a plug gauge and everything proved to be accurate. He stated...
2 Pages(500 words)Case Study

Susan Wolf - Asymmetrical Freedom

...Asymmetrical freedom-Wolf Wolf in his arguments s that for an individual to be morally responsible, he must meet two conditions: he must be a free agent, one whose actions are under personal control. This is for the reason that if his actions are not based on his decisions he does not deserve discredit or credit for doing whatever he does. Secondly, he must be an ethical agent, one to whom the moral claims relate, since his actions can be neither wrong nor right, and then there is no reason to credit or discredit him for. Wolf refers to the first condition as the condition of freedom, while the second one as the condition of value. According to Wolf, an agent’s actions...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

The Dire Wolf

...?The Dire Wolf The species that is known as the dire wolf is a large and powerful ancestor of modern wolves and dogs which is now extinct. It has, however, left a rich legacy in myths and legends across many northern countries where it once roamed as one of the most feared predators of all time. This paper traces the way that the dire wolf has been represented in myths and legends of the past, and also in the stories, films and computer video games of the modern world. The exact species which gave rise to all the legends is the Canis dirus and it lived in the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11.700 years ago) in both North and South America (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012, p. 1). It was...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


...? of the Spiders Spiders are a kind of insects which are usually eight-legged creatures. These insects have the ability to produce silk through an organ at the back of their bodies. Spiders are known as the most significant part of the arachnid kingdom. Moreover, Scorpions and Ticks have also known to originate from the same family of insects. One of the main characteristics which are usually common in almost all spiders is the ability to bite. Most of them have fangs through which venom is secreted. Almost all kinds of spiders are poisonous to some extent. To date, 40,000 species of spiders have been recorded. It has been said that there...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Cassandra by Christa Wolf

...Cassandra is a story written by Christa Wolf and is divided into five separate fragments. Cassandra is a female character in the story, shown as the daughter of Priam and a prophet during the Trojan war. The novella, the first part, portrays the final three days of Cassandra's life. This point of view gives a new look to the well documented story of Troy and to an extent, changes the general conception of the epic story. The other parts; the essays, are more centered on the writer and Wolf takes her readers through her feelings and things that drove her while creating this story. It is at times, more interesting than the novella itself and gives insight into Wolf's life and the events...
5 Pages(1250 words)Book Report/Review

Movie Spider-Man

...Topic: A Critical Review of the Movie Spider-Man I. Introduction Spider-Man is surprisingly a movie that managed to explore several different themes. The movie had the first impression that it was merely based on the comic book designed specially for children who are fascinated with the web-crawling antics of the unlikely hero of a teenager and the colourful suit that every kid on the block liked to have. While it maintained the pace of an action movie, it focused mainly on the human nature such as love, hate, rage, revenge, greed, sacrifice, insanity, success, etc. The movie is quite impressive but according to one review, it isn't subtle on how it deals with its main themes (johnleemk,2007) thereby presenting it as a movie... not for...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Wade & Wolf Analysis

...Wade & Wolf Analysis Introduction Globalization has brought numerous changes in the living standards of people all over the world. The article Are Global Poverty and Inequality Getting Worse? focuses on the impacts of globalization in alleviation of poverty and in narrowing the inequality that exists in the average incomes for countries across the world. Martin Wolf puts forth his thought that globalization has aided in assuaging poverty and inequality on a world scale. But Robert Wade disagrees with Wolf and points towards the fact that Wolf’s analysis is based on erroneous sources. Wade thinks that the inequality, which is prevalent in average income for various...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Fictional Character-Spider-Man

... Fictional Character-Spider-Man If I were ever to be a fictional character, I would have chosen to become Spider Man. I have grown up reading Spider Man comics and watching its cartoons and movies. It has always amazed me how he has been endowed with the powers to climb up major buildings and structures and then swing between them using cobwebs coming out of his wrist. I have always been a fan of people who do right things, and take all the steps in their might to go against evil in a bid to make sure the flag of rightness flies high in the sky. If you have ever seen or read about Spider Man you will agree with the fact that he has always fought against evil not only...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Strategic analysis

3 Pages(750 words)Case Study


...Spider Assignment 14 A Jack and Jill must learn to live and appreciate each in order to avoid the constant arguments which they engage in. The two individuals have endured log arguments and misunderstanding on every aspect of their lives. While they have coexisted in harmony, mistrust of each other results in arguments over the whereabouts of jack. The film depicts a perfect situation in which people would appreciate those close to them regardless of the situations which they find themselves in. as seen in the film, the mistrust existing between the couple leads to each one of them getting hurt by the actions of the other person. Understanding becomes essential in minimising the instances of mistrust and ensuring that...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Lycosidae ( wolf spider) for FREE!

Contact Us