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Leishmaniasis Disease Emergence and Re-emergence Analysis - Essay Example

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Leishmaniasis Disease Emergence and Re-emergence Analysis Name: Institution: A number of new and reemerging contagious diseases have been identified in both developed and developing countries in the world. This has been attributed to a multifarious assortment of factors…
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Leishmaniasis Disease Emergence and Re-emergence Analysis
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"Leishmaniasis Disease Emergence and Re-emergence Analysis"

Download file to see previous pages In the previous decade, endemic areas have extended, occurrence increased and the substantial unrecorded cases of the disease identified. Leshmaniasis is one of the most significant human vector-borne disorders. Leishmania parasite causes nodules and skin ulcers to individuals. Numerous Leishmania parasites can have an effect on mucous membranes of an individual and may cause nose disfiguration (Ashfold & Bettini, 1987). In addition, other leishmania species may harm the internal body organs of an individual. According to a report by Ready (2010), dogs are the most significant domestic animals in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. This is because dogs are reservoir hosts for L. Infantum, a significant organism in human visceral Leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is caused by species of leishmania, a protozoan that belongs to the family of Trypanosomatidae. Leishmania genera are divided into two subdivisions that are Leishmania and viannia. These two different types of parasites live and multiply in the digestive tract of causative agent. The difference between the two sub divisions lies in where they multiply in the digestive system of the causative agent. Human leishmanisis is caused by leishmania which is transmitted between individuals who are reservoir hosts. ...
In this regard, the activity of the sand flies intensifies at dawn, dusk and at night when perturbed in their hiding places. Sand flies are always attracted by light at night and enter buildings at night, bite people and cause the spread of Leishmaniasis. Leshmania parasite may also be transmitted by canine fleas and ticks (Ashfold & Bettini, 1987). Ticks are most importantly used to transmit the parasite between dogs. Presently, sand fly transmission seems to have reduced due to the effects of global warming. Global warming has brought changes in the climate which has caused hot regions to be hotter and cold regions to be colder. This change in climate has adversely affected the activities of sand flies whose activities are high when it is cool, humid and fewer rains. Present transmission seems to be done by mammals that can traverse the harsh climatic conditions. Leishmaniasis disease was initially termed as a disease of the rural areas. Presently, large outbreaks have been reported in large cities across the world because of encouraging epidemiological conditions linked to the reduction of natural ecological space of the vectors due to droughts, deforestation due to population growth and famine which are effects of climate change (World Health Oragnization, 2009). Mammals can remain infected with Leishmania for long and can still infect with the parasite even after clinical cure. Infected mammals can in turn transmit the parasite to sand flies. Presently, the parasites have been transmitted to people through blood transfusions in dogs and people (Ready, 2010). Leishmaniasis may also be caused by l. infantum which can be transmitted through saliva, semen, urine and conjunctiva secretions and blood. In the contemporary world, the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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