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To what extent can knowledge of tumour associated antigens be useful in the management of cancer patients Illustrate your answe - Essay Example

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Tumour Associated Antigens Tumour antigens are antigenic proteins produced by tumour cells. These antigens are classified into two broad classes, Tumour- Specific Antigens (TSA) and Tumour- Associated Antigens (TAA). TSA are unique to tumour cells only while TAA are in both tumour cells and normal body cells (Ghaffar & Nagarkatti 2010)…
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Download file to see previous pages The antigens are expressed in different categories depending on the gene mutation of proteins in the Tumour cells. These categories define the classes of tumour-Associated antigens, which are Unique Tumour Antigens, Cancer Testis Antigens, Differentiation Antigens, and over expressed Antigens in relation to T-cells antigens in cancer (Gires & Seliger 2009). Unique Tumour Antigens are specific antigens in the tumour cells recognized by CD4 + and CD8+ T cells as a result of gene mutation and fusion of proteins (Gires & Seliger 2009). These tumour antigens have specific expressions to the tumour cells from which the proteins are altered thus only a few are shared in different T-cells. Unlike Unique Tumour Antigens, Cancer Testis antigens go through additional mutations that bring about a restricted expression on cancer cells. These antigens encompasses a group of antigens recognized by CD4 + and CD8+ T cells and they are basically antibody target (Gires & Seliger 2009). Differentiation Antigens are characterized by malignant cells associated with cluster differentiation that are not particularly tumour related. They are directed towards specific antibodies in the same lineage rather than normal body cells (Gires & Seliger 2009). ...
e, Cytotoxic T-cells detect antigens on Tumour cells, which can lead to cell damage when Cytotoxic T-cells secrets negative cytokines that destroys normal cells (Crowley 2011). Immunotherapy uses the same kind of approach since it kills small metastatic cells hence creating adaptive immunity when the antigens get to the body (Miermont 2008). Antigen- specific T- cells are introduced in the body through vaccines where Lymphocytes create a hormonal immune response by being activated to eliminate Tumour Associated antigens immediately they recognize invading antigens (Nagorsen & Marincola 2005). Tumour- Associated Antigens are helpful when it comes to human cancer management. The importance of these types of antigens is dependent on the type of cancer and the level in which it has been realized. It has been realized that tumour associated antigens are very attractive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to human cancer (UICC 2003). When applied especially when the cancer symptoms are not conspicuous, it can assist in revealing the areas affected by cancer cells. For example, Hodge, Grosenbach & Schlom (2002), expresses an experiment where they introduce vectors (antigens) in the body of a patient in form of a vaccine. These experiments are done using different antigens as a source of signal. The introduction of the antigens helped create immunity since it identified the specific areas affected. With introduction of antigens in different capacities, the immunity went on growing with each vaccine administered. According to Kumar (2012), cancer can be successfully treated by a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Having knowledge about tumour-associated antigens can assist a patient to know the right combination for his particular ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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