Hypersensitivity Reaction - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Hypersensitivity reactions refer to reactions by the normal immune systems that are undesirable. They include autoimmunity and allergies. The reactions could be occasionally fatal, uncomfortable, or damaging…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER99% of users find it useful
Hypersensitivity Reaction
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Hypersensitivity Reaction"

Download file to see previous pages Hypersensitivity Reaction

This paper aims to review the immunological mechanisms giving rise to the four groups of hypersensitivity. It also compares and contrasts hypersensitivity reactions caused by antibodies and those caused by T-lymphocytes, while also discussing the clinical consequences of each of the reactions using examples. Hypersensitivity reactions can be divided into type I-IV, based on the various involved mechanisms. Type I, often associated with allergy, is mediated by IgE. IgE triggers basophil and mast cell degranulation cross linking with antigen. Type II occurs on binding of the host’s cells to antigens, which marks them for destruction (Phillips, 2006 p89). Mediation is by IgG and IgM antibodies. Type III hypersensitivity triggering occurs due to aggregates of IgM, IgG, complement proteins, and antigens deposited in tissues. Type IV hypersensitivity’s mediation is by macrophages, monocytes, and T cells. Infectious diseases and autoimmune involve this hypersensitivity in their reactions. Most hypersensitivity injuries develop due to interactions between antibodies and antigens or between sensitized T-lymphocytes and antigens. The general symptoms accompanying the reaction depend on the involvement of either T-lymphocytes, or antibodies. During antibody involvement, immediate hypersensitivity results, while T-lymphocyte involvement results in delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Immediate hypersensitivity includes immune complex reactions, cytotoxic reactions, allergic reactions, and anaphylaxis. Delayed hypersensitivity includes infection allergies and contact dermatitis. Antibody Mediated Hypersensitivity vs. T-lymphocyte Mediated Hypersensitivity Antibody mediated hypersensitivity depends on the antigen nature, its frequency, and antigen contact route (Phillips, 2006 p11). It also depends on antibody type that reacts with the antigen. The initial antigen dose is known as sensitizing dose. On exposure, a latent period follows. Later, a dose of the same antigen, referred to as shocking or eliciting dose, sets off the reaction. This results in tissue damage. In T-lymphocyte mediated hypersensitivity, T-lymphocytes function rather than antibodies. These T-lymphocytes function in cell mediated immunity. They produce Lymphokines, which stimulate macrophage influx in order to perform phagocytosis. This results in immune response exaggeration. For both antibody mediated and T-lymphocyte mediated hypersensitivity reactions, local tissue destruction results. However, destruction of tissue by T-lymphocyte mediation occurs via phagocytosis. For antibody mediated hypersensitivity, reactions begin minutes after antigen administration (Phillips, 2006 p31). On direct administration of the antigen directly to the tissue, for example, injection or bee stings, a systemic reaction occurs. For instance, anaphylactic shock may result. When the contact involved is superficial, involving epithelial tissue, a localized reaction results, for example, hay fever and asthma. These reactions can also be referred to as atopy or allergy. T-lymphocyte mediated hypersensitivity, on the other hand, requires one day or more in order to develop. It can manifest in the form of infection allergy, such as in the tuberculin test (Phillips, 2006 p34). A second manifestation of T-lymphocyte mediated hypersensitivity is contact dermatitis. Large blister like lesions accompany the reaction, with vesicles surrounded by redness. The vesicles usually itch intensely. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Hypersensitivity Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Hypersensitivity Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1453393-hypersensitivity-reaction
(Hypersensitivity Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
Hypersensitivity Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1453393-hypersensitivity-reaction.
“Hypersensitivity Reaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1453393-hypersensitivity-reaction.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Applied Immunology
According to gel and coombs, it is of four types. The first type of hypersensitivity reaction is called Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction is mainly mediated by IgE immunoglobulins. Allergens when enter the body, bind to IgE immunoglobulins which then bind to specific receptors present on the surface of mast cells resulting in degranulation and release of mediators such as histamine.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Mycobacterium Leprae and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
leprae) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are the major pathogens that belong to the genus, Mycobacterium. M. tuberculosis, first discovered by Robert Koch in 1882, is one of the devastating pathogens and causes human diseases that are the source of both death and prolonged disability.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Case Study ''Hypersensitivity to the skin''
This is a case study of Mr. V.D who suffered with chronic eczema for the past three years. He was an air craft mechanic who was religiously devoted to both his family as well as his job.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
It can spread from one person to another through different ways, but generally air happens to be the prominent method for the spread of Tuberculosis. The germs of TB known as bacilli, enters into air, when a TB patient sneezes, talks or spits. This way the germs can enter into another healthy person's body during inhalation.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Air Quality and Environmental Health
Exposures to biologic, chemical and physical agents from the home environment can be linked to health-related factors. Death is by far the most serious among potential harms from air pollution, and this happens when one is exposed to excessive levels of air pollution (Schwartz, 2006).
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
The figures were based on 135, 000 staff on 6, 000 hospital wards across the UK. The problem is important for the reasons that: a) sick leave among ward staff costs about 470 million pounds per year; b) high rate of temporary staff
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
These antigens are usually referred to as allergens, which are any foreign substance that is capable of yielding an immune response (Porth, 2002). Typically, the result is inflammation and damage to healthy tissue (Holmes, 2003). A lot of various chemicals, whether natural or man made, are known allergens, and complex natural organic chemicals like proteins, usually cause immediate hypersensitivity response.
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Using specific examples, compare how inflammatory and hypersensitive reactions to parasites can be a defence of the hosts against the parasites and also a disease problem for the hosts
developments in the antibody antigen reactions that have seen to the development of clinical resistance to interventions against some parasites that has come up due to induced immunity as in the case of the malaria causing parasite. A parasite is “an animal which lives on or
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Introduction to the lab report on controlling barley powdery mildew
sp. Hordei. Control of the disease has been tried using three methods namely cultural, chemical and by development of disease resistance in plant. Of these the use of disease resistant plant varieties has been the found to be the most sustainable method of control of powdery mildew (Jorgensen, 1994).
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Diseases of the Human Body II
The diseases have various causes, symptoms, signs, and treatment that doctors look out for during their diagnosis. This paper describes causes, signs, symptoms, and treatment of different diseases of the human body. Systemic Features of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Diagnosis and Treatment Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or simply Lupus is a multi-factorial autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Hypersensitivity Reaction for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us