Nobody downloaded yet

Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the stages in the development of the specific immune respons - Essay Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important?

The human body is a collection of complex systems of organs working together seamlessly and interdependently to create life. Keeping our bodies in homeostasis is a mind-boggling feat involving a balance between the components in us as opposed to our ever-changing environment. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER99% of users find it useful
Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the stages in the development of the specific immune respons
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the stages in the development of the specific immune respons"

Download file to see previous pages Our bodies are both fragile and resilient at the same time; being so soft and easily broken, yet keeping us alive even during the worst of conditions, always adapting and always surviving. One of the important factors that keep us alive is our immune system and its ability to adapt to the environment and the pathogens it contains. According to Gene Mayer, PhD, there are two ways wherein the body can protect itself from infection: Innate or nonspecific immune system, and Adaptive or specific immune system. ‘The innate immune system is the first line of defense’ which provides immediate, but nonspecific responses to infection (e.g. skin, mucus, tears, sneezing, etc.). The adaptive immune system is slower and responds only to specific antigens with cells called lymphocytes. Once the adaptive immune system responds to a specific antigen, the body will remember it and will produce antibodies to combat the antigen more effectively every time it comes back.1 There are two main types of lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity--B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). These cells are produced in the bone marrow. One of the differences between the two is that the T cells have to migrate to the thymus gland to mature. Stein and Nombela-Arrieta (2005, pp.1-12) state that these lymphocytes that have just matured and have yet to encounter an antigen, are called naive lymphocytes. From the bone marrow and the thymus, the lymphocytes are then trafficked through the bloodstream to the secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), which are the peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and gut-associated lymphoid tissues called the Peyer's patches. In the SLO, once the naive cells encounter antigens and become activated, they will undergo changes and will eventually leave to combat the infection.2 Kuby wrote that when a pathogen enters the body, it enters the bloodstream and is transported to the lymph nodes and lymphatic organs where antigen presenting cells (APCs) break it down into antigen compounds to be bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules. The naive helper T cells become activated once they encounter the antigen bound to the MHC molecules. It then becomes an effector cell (Th) that produces cytokines which activate B cells, T cells, macrophages and other cells included in the specific immune response. Once the Th cells are released into the bloodstream, when they find the antigen, they secrete their cytokines. T cytotoxic cells (Tc) become another effector cell called the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). This kind of effector cell does not produce cytokines but is designed to destroy infected cells. Once the B cells encounter the antigen, they proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells whose antibodies attach to the antigen, effectively neutralizing it. Other B cells turn into memory B cells that allow for a faster response to illness once the same pathogen enters the body again.3 Mayer and Nyland (2010) pointed out that ‘since there are relatively few T or B lymphocytes with a receptor for any particular antigen (1/10,000 – 1/100,000), the chances for a successful encounter between an antigen and the appropriate lymphocyte are slim.’4 The chances of encountering the right antigen with the right antibody are maximized with recirculation to the SLOs. The lymphocytes constantly circulate from the lymph organs to the blood via lymphatics if there is no antigen present. ‘It is estimated that 1-2% of lymphocytes recirculate every hour’ (Mayer & Nyland, 2010).5 If it does encounter an antigen, the cells differentiate into the effector cells (B, Th, or Tc) to combat the infection. After the infection, it can go back to the blood stream ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the Essay”, n.d.)
Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1453242-why-is-the-trafficking-of-naive-lymphocytes
(Why Is the Trafficking of Naive Lymphocytes Important Outline the Essay)
Why Is the Trafficking of Naive Lymphocytes Important Outline the Essay. https://studentshare.org/biology/1453242-why-is-the-trafficking-of-naive-lymphocytes.
“Why Is the Trafficking of Naive Lymphocytes Important Outline the Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1453242-why-is-the-trafficking-of-naive-lymphocytes.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
nernser added comment 5 months ago
Student rated this paper as
I had an issue with a essay types of works. All until I came across this website and this particular essay. Even though "Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important? Outline the stages in the development of the specific immune respons..." is far from my studies, the structure is so great that I use it all the time as an example for my own works.
Newborn stages of development
Suck reflex: The baby starts sucking when the roof of her mouth is touched. Startle reflex: The baby takes a jerk or startles when he hears a loud sound. Grasp reflex: The baby closes his fingers around something that touches his hand. Step reflex: This is the walking reflex that appears when the baby is held in a standing position on a smooth surface.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
According to a study conducted, more than 1000 pedestrians visited emergency room in 2008 because they got distracted and tripped, fell or ran in to something. According to cognitive scientist, cell phone use while multi – tasking can have a
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Stages of ego development
The concept continued to be explained under several different names or titles such as moral development, character development, and others. Several psychoanalysts, such as Freud and Adler differed in their views on ego development and hence theoretical issues arose in defining and explaining the process (Hy & Loevinger, 1996).
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Five Stages of International Development
This is not always the process, but it is good to note that it is the most experienced. This study is going to consider five major phases of international development with businesses in focus and as such the organizations of the US are going to be put under spotlight.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Moral Stages of Development
Understanding to what extent the classroom itself acts like a mirror of larger society can help teachers construct teaching methods that will benefit children in all the stages of moral development. Lawrence Kohlberg proposes three different levels for moral development in youth: Pre-Conventional, Conventional and Post-Conventional.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Newborn Stages of Development
This essay focuses on describing of development stages of the newborn babies, that is in the human being’s most critical stage of life. This first weeks after birth, babies are totally dependent on its parents and caregivers, as well as on their actions, experiences and bonds acquired during this time, that usually last their entire life.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Human Trafficking Policy Development Paper
12.3 million Of this number are children and adults in forced labor across the world. There are about 9.8 million people who are exploited by the private agents for commercial sex or labor purposes. Young people forced to
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
5 Stages of Team Development
I realized that life is full of so many team-forming sessions, only that the stages involved could be minimal or complete according to the guide. The five steps include forming storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Each of the
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Stages of Development
Estrogen enables the uterus and placenta to improve the vascularization, transfer nutrients and support the developing baby. Estrogen levels shoot steadily during pregnancy and reach their peak in the third trimester resulting in nausea and enlarged
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Freud's stages of psychosexual development
Oral stage is observed within the first year of the child, characterized by centering the pleasure and erogenous area in the mouth, as observed by sucking on fingers and breastfeeding. Any problems unresolved during this stage constitute to negative behaviors,
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Why is the trafficking of naive lymphocytes important Outline the stages in the development of the specific immune respons for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us