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Microbiology Biology - Coursework Example

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Microbiology Name Institution 1. Explains the meaning of biotechnology and describe its use in the production of insulin. Biotechnology is the use of biological systems to synthesize products, which improve the quality of life. Scientists have divided this branch of science into four main sub disciplines; red, white, green and blue…
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Microbiology Biology Coursework
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"Microbiology Biology"

After inserting copied DNAs into a plasmid, and the gene can, therefore, move into a bacterium. In this stage, transcriptional promoter used to make more DNA. Following plasmid introduction into a bacterium, normally Escherichia coli, the new recombinant bacterium has a new gene which instructs the bacteria to synthesize new mRNA, which produce new proteins. Screening provides the recombinant bacterium with the target insulin mRNA/cDNA. Large numbers of bacteria can be grown after identifying the correct insulin-expressing cell. Cells eventually burst and the insulin purified from the rest of the bacterial proteins. Purified insulin can be packaged for clinical use. 2. Explain how the body defends itself against infection in reference to innate (non-specific immunity) and adaptive immunity (specific immunity). Innate immunity provides the primary defense while the adaptive immunity is the second line defense. Elements of the innate immunity include; anatomical barriers, cellular components as well as secretory molecules. The skin forms a physical barrier which is impermeable to most pathogens. Cilia keep the airways to be clear from microorganisms while tears and saliva offer protection to the eyes and mouth respectively. Acidic pH of sweat and gastric secretions inhibit bacterial growth. In the lung, surfactant acts as an opsonin hence promoting phagocytosis. Normal flora of the skin compete with disease causing bacteria inhibiting its colonization. Lactoferrin and transferring inhibit bacterial growth through binding to iron which is an essential nutrient for bacteria. Interferons limit viral replication in cells while lysozyme break down bacterial cell wall. Neutrophils and macrophages kill invading pathogens intracellularly via phagocytosis. Natural killer cells kill tumour cells as well as cells infected with a virus eosinophils effectively kill certain parasites. Lymphocytes and antibodies form the adaptive immunity which provides both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. T lymphocytes carry out the cell mediated immunity by killing infected cells. On the other hand, B cells execute humoral immunity via digesting soluble antigens. 3. a. Explain the meaning of chemotherapy and evaluate the limitations in the use of antibiotics as chemotherapeutic agents. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using anticancer agents. Studies show that when anthracycline class of antibiotics cause cardiotoxicity when used as chemotherapeutic agents. The cardiotoxicity could be due to free radicals or due to ryanodine receptor interference causing heart failure. Other complications include encephalopathy. Encephalopathy may present with confusion, seizures and irritability. Antibiotics can affect the kidney by causing nephrotoxicity. This condition can lead to renal failure, which may cause other systemic complications. In the liver, they cause hepatotoxicity leading to impaired liver function. Moreover, antibiotics can cause ototoxicity. Some cases present with nausea and vomiting. Bleomycin causes gonadotoxicity which gets to infertility. b. Explain the difference between antiseptics, antibiotics, antibodies and disinfectants. While both disinfectants and antiseptics get used to kill pathogens, they differ on where they get used. Disinfectants become used to kill pathogen on any surface and equipment while antiseptics are compounds that kill Read More
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