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Photosynthesis: The Role of Light - Essay Example

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“Photosynthesis: The Role of Light” Introduction Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs (capable of producing their own food) and a few bacterial species convert light energy into the chemical energy which is utilized by the entire animal kingdom either directly (by herbivores) or indirectly (by carnivores)…
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Photosynthesis: The Role of Light
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Download file to see previous pages Morphology of the plant leaf The morphology of the leaf encompasses upper and lower epidermis- the outer later, possessing minute openings called the stomata through which gaseous exchange (CO2 is taken in and O2 is given out of the leaf), as well as elimination of water takes place through stomata (transpiration). Between these two layers is a layer of mesophyll cells they could be compact or spongy (filled with air) depending upon the plant adaptation to its habitat. Vascular bundle(s) are present inside the leaf. They have vascular tissues xylem (to carry water and minerals from the roots to the leaf) and phloem (to carry prepared food to the different plant parts and also to the storage parts such as fruits and stem or roots depending on the plant). The epidermis, both upper and lower do not contain chloroplast and therefore no photosynthesis takes place in these set of cells. They provide protection to the inner cells of the leaf (“Photosynthesis”). Structure of Chloroplast Mesophyll cells contain the organelle chloroplast, a typical characteristic feature of the plants, it contains outer membrane, inner membrane, stroma- the space, thylakoids- disc like structure, stacked one above the other to form a structure called grana (“Photosynthesis”). ...
Light Reaction B. Dark Reaction. A. Light Reaction- occurs in the presence of light and hence it is Light Dependent Reaction. During the process a molecule of chlorophyll in the thylakoids, absorbs a photon of light and eliminates an electron. Various other pigment molecules such as ?- carotene form a cluster and play an imperative role in absorbing a different color of light spectrum and pass the energy to the chlorophyll molecule (the elimination of hydrogen (H) atoms from the water molecule). The electron travels through the ETC (electron transport chain), during the process ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), an energy molecule is produced as well as NADP+ is reduced to NADPH. As a result of this reaction water molecule splits into H+ and O2 is released. The reaction is: 2H2O + 2 NADP+ + 3 ADP + 3 Pi + light > 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + 3 ATP + O2 (“Understanding The Role of Light in Photosynthesis”). Light Reaction Hydrogen molecule is made up of an electron (e-) as well as a proton (H+). With the help of light energy water molecule split as 2H2O > 4e- + 4H+ + O2. The released electron reduces NADP+ to NADPH to be used in Dark Reaction as well as it onsets an electrochemical charge to give energy for the proton pumping form stroma (the matrix of the chloroplast) to the thylakoid. These protons on one hand reduce NADP+ to NADPH and on the other hand they flow reverse from the thylakoid to stroma and during the process the energy given put is utilized by the ADP molecule to undergo the process of phosphorylation to form ATP, an energy rich molecule. Since the process of phosphorylation takes place in the presence of light it is ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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According to the World of Scientific Discovery (2/2011), “…photosynthesis is the process by which living things turn (or convert) light energy into chemical energy…photosynthesis is a process by which sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water are converted into sugars” (Gale Science, 2011, p.
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The procedure by which a semi-conductor solar goes through to make energy and photosynthesis are some of the ways since energy is created to sustain lives. The leaves are the key site of photosynthesis in plants containing chloroplasts that are found in mesophyl cells which form the tissues inside the leaf.
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It also helps in learning how quantitative measurements of photosynthetic electron transport can be made through the Hill reaction. It is aimed at demonstrating the Hill reaction of photosynthesis and the reaction conditions that affect it. At the end of the practical, the learner should produce a report that can be used by other scientists to understand the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis and the electron transfer to high energy molecules like ATP and NADP+ and how they are substituted by DCPIP (Dichlorophenol Indophenol) in the Hill reaction to demonstrate the same.
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Micro organisms are everywhere around the world from soil to deep sea oceans, in air, in foods, in the atmosphere surrounding us and even in such places where existence of life is impossible. One such example is the discovery of bacteria in the hot environment of lava.
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With the assumption that the rate of photosynthesis as manifested by CO2 consumption would be inversely related to the received light wavelength, drops in CO2 recorded and data calculated. Green wavelength having the lowest rate of photosynthesis was the only data adhering to what we had predicted.
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The light wavelengths come in a spectrum form in which the different light wavelengths are absorbed differently by the leaves during the process of photosynthesis. In this sense, there are specific light wave length that accelerates photosynthesis than the rest.
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While animal cells contain cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and chromosomes, cells of plants contain a cell wall made of cellulose, chloroplast and vacuole (The Cell, n.d.). The present study focuses on a literature review of general biology, particularly considering the process of photosynthesis, the functions of chromosomes, and the structure of DNA and their associations with each other.
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Solar cells or PV cells are made up of a semiconductor material like silicon etc. The incident sunlight is absorbed by the material; the solar energy knocks out electrons from their atoms, allowing the electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity. This process of converting photons to electrons is called the photovoltaic effect.
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Chloroplasts are made up of thylakoid membranes where the green pigment chlorophyll is found. Chlorophyll looks green because it absorbs the red and blue wavelength of the visible light spectrum, reflecting
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lants by the process of photosynthesis release carbon IV oxide which is taken up by other living organisms for respiration which in turn release oxygen required for photosynthesis (Photosynthesis vs. Respiration 2012). Respiration and photosynthesis are similar in the production
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