Nobody downloaded yet

The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 - Coursework Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
INTRODUCTION Influenza is an infection caused by a virus of the same name that, in humans, preferentially attaches and cause harm on the lungs. Its symptoms include fever, cough and severe muscle aches. The infecting agent and symptoms should naturally wane within a few days, although they still have caused death among the elderly and immunocompromised individuals because the disease makes the infected person more susceptible to bacterial infection…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.6% of users find it useful
The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1"

Download file to see previous pages HA molecules are particularly important in the development of the disease as they cause the preferential attachment to lung epithelial cells and the insertion of the virus contents into the host cell. Each protein in the virus has multiple subtypes. In human-infecting Influenza virus strains, there are three HA subtypes, H1, H2 and H3, while NA has two, N1 and N2. The different combinations of HA and NA make possible the multiple subtypes of Influenza viruses (Kimball, 2009). With the elucidation of the viral structure, it has since been discovered that there are multiple strains of the virus, and that they continually mutate and cross-infect swine, birds and humans. As commonly seen among viruses, HA, together with NA, genes mutate at a high rate, causing new strains to be seen infecting humans almost yearly. This phenomenon is referred to as the antigenic shift. In addition, Influenza virus strains undergo gene reassortment, in which two strains infecting the same bird or swine exchange RNA strands to develop a new virus subtype that the human population has not been exposed before. Thus, this antigenic shift usually causes severe pandemics. For example, the 1957 H2N2 Asian flu pandemic after the 1918 H1N1 Spanish flu pandemic is believed to be caused by the simultaneous infection of a human-infecting subtype and a bird-specific H2N_ resulting to the reassortment of their genes that produced a new bird-specific subtype that can infect humans. In effect, this new H2N2 subtype is something the human population at that time has not been exposed before, causing many to have no immunity against the virus and to be susceptible to infection (Kimball, 2009). Because of the unique features of Influenza virus, current prophylaxis still involves multiple vaccinations, with the composition of multivalent shots varied annually to confer protection against strains guessed to be most infective during the coming season. Thus, prolonging and ensuring the effectiveness has been the focal point of many researches. A promising approach is the development of vaccines that can induce the production of antibodies that are specific against multiple HA subtypes. Throsby and his colleagues (2008) paved the way for such approach when they identified human antibodies that can bind to H1, H2, H5, H6, H8, and H9. They referred to this antibody as CR6261 (Eckiert et al., 2009). CR6261 AGAINST H1N1 AND OTHER SUBTYPES What makes CR6261 different from other antibodies that confer resistance to only one subtype of Influenza? Eckiert et al. (2009) tried to elucidate the 2.2 and 2.6A crystal structure of the antigen-binding portion (Fab) of CR6261, as well as the CR6261 Fab complexed with heterotypic HAs from human 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus and avian H5N1 virus. Although it was not mentioned in the study if there is any purpose in choosing H1 and H5 instead of the other subtypes, the choices probably served the most purpose because H1 has a history in causing a pandemic (1918 H1N1 Spanish flu), and H5 has a likelihood to infect and cause death among humans, who are mostly unexposed to such type of Influenza (Kimball, 2009). However, it is most ideal if the study ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 Coursework”, n.d.)
The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 Coursework. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1434963-the-nature-and-effect-of-superbug
(The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 Coursework)
The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 Coursework. https://studentshare.org/biology/1434963-the-nature-and-effect-of-superbug.
“The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 Coursework”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1434963-the-nature-and-effect-of-superbug.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
The Effect Of Light Intensity On Photosynthesis Of Pondweed Plant
This proves that plant can only photosynthesize at the time of day. The rate of photosynthesis depends on the intensity of light. Other than this, there are other limiting factors of the process as well. Temperatures, Concentration of CO2, water, wavelength of light are some of the main limiting factors of the process.
11 Pages(2750 words)Coursework
Effect of Gradient on the Abundance of Ranunculus Repens
Furthermore, doctors and specialist physicians recognized musculoskeletal disorder as the most commonly reported ailment. Its was very common disease compared to the other diseases that affected workers. This statistics raised a lot of concern on how was this disease is going to eliminated among the workers.
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework
Explore Hardy's use of Nature in Tess of the D'Urbervilles
Being a writer of the Wessex novels, he has portrayed the landscape of the place in his novels very elaborately. The novels like, The Mayor of Caster bridge, Under the Greenwood Tree, The Wood Landers, Tess of the D’Urbervilles, and so on are widely praised for the portrayal of the landscape of the Wessex.
4 Pages(1000 words)Coursework
The nature of the Bolshevik takeover in October 1917
This participation in war as well as the economic downturn of the country was the result of the policies of the Provisional Government. However, it is also debatable among Historians that the failures of the Provisional Government were the main factors that enabled Lenin and the Bolsheviks to seize power.
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework
Greenhouse Effect and Environmental Law
The picture drawn by Spash (2002) is so much well documented that along with the description of various environmental effects, he has conditioned and highlighted the various causes of the environmental change. Spash's magnum opus "Greenhouse Economics" served as a guideline for me to read and follow the major causes that started from the environmental change and ended at "Greenhouse Economics".
23 Pages(5750 words)Coursework
The effect of dividends on stock price
Quite often, in fact usually, they end up making more money than most speculators and gamblers. Skilful investment decisions alone cannot make you an instant millionaire or enormously rich overnight. For that you need to be a speculator or a gambler with an inborn flair and instinctive feel for the market, combined with a willingness to take great risks.
37 Pages(9250 words)Coursework
The Nature of Human Conflicts
Character is shaped by these structures to help in individuals well being failure to imposition of values leads to conflicts with the criminal system. Another factor that brings conflicts is ones belief about
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework
Nature of Entrepreneurship course
They mean more or less the same thing, but they often are confused to refer to the same thing. Entrepreneurship, generally, is a human and social phenomenon that ensures there is a new value that is created from working on an
7 Pages(1750 words)Coursework
Examining the Effect of Societal Inequities
Education inequalities in the Pulaski School District are attributed by economic disparities that are found along the racial lines; modern discussions on education equity relates to the racial divide subject. Racial divide in
5 Pages(1250 words)Coursework
Nature of an electron
QUESTION ONE Photoelectric effect Photoelectric effect is the process by which electrons are emitted from the surface of a photosensitive material when hit by light incidents. The intensity of the light energy determines the kinetic energy of the produced photoelectrons.
9 Pages(2250 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Coursework on topic The Nature and Effect of Superbug H1N1 for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us