This paper "The Dualism of Mind and Brain" focuses on the study of philosophy that has been overly accredited in its many successes in defining and understanding many aspects of human existence. However, all philosophers will attest that although they seem to have covered milestones in the field, there is one particular aspect that they have never quite understood. …
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Some claim that the mind is non-existent; others claim the mind and brain cooperate to bring about intelligence. Further studies into human intelligence surround the development and complexity of human language which in comparison to all other animals’ language is quite unique and high-tech. These two controversies will form the basis of this study text.
Chapter 14 in the book “Who are” by Pojman Louis is dedicated to explaining the mind-brain controversy which takes to two partitions of monism and dualism. The dominant dualist theories as explained by Descartes, Augustine, and Plato are challenged by other philosophers such as Daniel Dennett and Patricia Churchland who are supporters of the monist theories.
The controversy arises from the dualist understanding of the brain, which defines the brain as existing in two forms; material and mental. The material form of the brain is defined as a body which is a material (solid) entity, is three-dimensional, occupies space, can be measured, can be observed by other parties apart from the owner, and results in some actions which rely on invariant laws of physics, particularly mechanics. On the other hand, the mental definition of the brain takes away all these properties and attributes the mind with consciousness as an intangible thing, occupies no space, is observable by only the owner, is immeasurable, and dos not adhere to any laws of physics. The dominant difference between the two is that while medical practitioners can directly touch and operate on the brain, only the owner of the mind can think using it, experience emotions, feel pain or know their beliefs and desires (226).
Dualism occurs through what is called dualistic interactionism, which is a correlation between the mind and brain. The mind caters for intelligence, which in turn affects the brain to enable a function. For instance, as Louis (226) explains, if one steps on a nail, some things happen; one withdraws the foot of the nail, and two, thinks of some way to heal the wound or prevent further complication such as tetanus infection.
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(“The Dualism of Mind and Brain Book Report/Review”, n.d.)
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(The Dualism of Mind and Brain Book Report/Review)
“The Dualism of Mind and Brain Book Report/Review”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/anthropology/1631202-mind-and-brain.
Dualism has over the years been associated with several philosophers, thinkers and religious leaders. Prominent among these are Socrates, Plato, St. Augustine, the Hindu religion and Prophet Zoroaster. Each of these personalities and groups take dualism from a different perspective but they all seem to arrive at one major understanding that two all concepts of human existence, there are two forms.
It’s a subject that has for centuries raised questions about the ability of animals to feel and manifest states such as pain, fear and anger. In modern times, the issue has polarized scientists and ethicists, framing as it does the argument over whether science has the ethical right to experiment on animals, particularly if experimentation causes pain and results in death.
Rene Descartes who lived from 1596 till 1650 was the French physiologist, philosopher and mathematician. He was the first one to initiate the debate about the mind’s and the body’s interaction with each other. Descartes proposed that human mind is a non-bodily entity, so it can work independent of the body.
First of all, aphasia usually refers to lesions of affectations of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the brain which are areas concerned with the ability to produce and comprehend language (Masdeu, 2000). Aphasia also refers to difficulties of a person in remembering words, as well as their inability to speak, read, and write (Masdeu, 2000).
Throughout generations, scientists have continued to study how the brain works and different techniques have been used to, somehow, get good resolution and timing at the same time (Voytek, “Computational Analysis”. Apart from the cellular level, scientists have also attempted to explain the behavior of individuals in terms of the influence of the changes in a person’s environment and the effects of the society to their behavior.
We can no longer limit reality to a scope that reduces reality to what we see, touch or experience through the senses. Historic development has expanded culture through scientific knowledge. It would be regressive to think that mind is a subjective experience, formless, beyond physical constraints, obliterating evidence in the functional analysis of behaviour.
This feature separates us, being the highest form of creation, from other creeping things on earth. We are body and soul, and just as the brain controls the physical, the mind is part of the soul.
But a materialist may argue and find possible answers to this question as they proposed that every kind of emotions are governed by neural activities each having their own unique pathways.
Essentially, this means that the concept of dualism accepts and reinforces the existence of a creator, or the cause, that would have created other worldly objects. Hence, the concepts of yin and yan according to the Chinese philosophy
These people are Materialists, who claim that the mind is actually a physical object completely unseparable from the rest of the body, and is just caused by brain chemistry. One of the ways in which Materialists challenge
According to him, the physical and spiritual aspects are two incompatible substances that have found a way of ‘coexisting’ in the human body (“Cartesian Dualism: Interaction of the Mind and Body”).
Dualism can be looked at from two stances, as a
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