The Pliocene represents the geological time period between 5.4 - 2.4 million years ago. It is considered to be the youngest period in Cenozoic Era. The word “Pliocene” is Greek and means "current state prolongation"…
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Geological time period: Pliocene
The period is very interesting for contemporary geology, therefore the given paper will discuss the Pliocene period with its major geological events, biological evolution, fossil groups, evolutionary breakthrough and paleoclimatic conditions.
During the Pliocene period mainlands were still moving, changing their location. They were probably two hundred kilometers from their current positions and changed their location to become only seventy kilometers from their present site. As a result of this movement, in the Pliocene period South America was already very close to North America. This closeness opened the way for the Great American Interchange and eliminated distinguishing characteristics of South America’s fauna.
At or near the close of the Pliocene, extensive upheavals took place in several different parts of the continent, especially on the Pacific slope. The rise of the Rocky Mountains continued, raising the western part of the Miocene beds 3000 feet higher than the eastern. The height of the Sierra was greatly increased by the rise of the mountains along the eastern fault-plane and the tilting of the whole block westward. The new valleys cut through the late basalt sheets of the Sierras are much deeper than the older valleys excavated in Cretaceous and Tertiary times, which is due to the greater height of the mountains and consequent greater fall of the streams .
World climate was greatly influenced by the naturally formed Isthmus because Atlantic Ocean became separated from warm waters.
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