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227). Pair-bonds can be defined as long-term affiliation between two individuals that also includes a sexual relationship. This relationship is relatively enduring irrespective of whether it is monogamous or polygamous. Various hypotheses have surfaced regarding the evolution of human pair-bonds, with some considering it a consequence of the competition of male mating while others considering it paternal provisioning’s adaptation. This paper explores the evolution of permanent pair bonding in humans.
Pair bonding is one of the most fundamental behaviors in humans like it is in all other primates and mammals. The importance of pair bonding is secondary probably only to such physiological needs as food and air. It is a natural behavior because of which it is commonly exhibited by both humans and non-human living beings, though in humans, a wide range of factors influence humans’ perceptions about and trends in pair bonding. Humans’ pair bonding patterns and behaviors are considerably different from those of other primates, humans being superior to them. Although the bond between a child and a mother in humans is homologous with the bond seen in other primates as well as mammals, yet the pair bond between a man and a woman and the pair bond between a man and a child in humans are not comparable to any terrestrial primate’s or mammals’ bonds (Immerman, 2003, p. 138). ...
mother and a child in humans is similar to other terrestrial primates but the bases of affiliative bond between a man and a woman or between a child and a man is dissimilar between humans and primates. The biological explanation of the evolution of pair-bonding is explained by the research on the monogamous rodents that has led to the emergence of a neurobiological model of formation of pair-bond (Young and Wang, 2004). The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin play an important role in dealing with the social cues that help in individual recognition. Reward learning and reinforcement is caused by mesolimbic dopamine. During the process of mating, dopamine receptors and neuropeptide get activated concurrently in the brain’s reward centers which leads to the conditioned preference for partner in pair-bonding. The differences observed in the tendency to develop pair bonds across different species is explained by the differential regulation of the expression of neuropeptide receptor. A very important perspective of the evolution of human pairing is grounded in religion. This is the perspective believed by a vast majority of people that believe in God and typically those that belong to an Abrahamic religion. It is mentioned in the religious scriptures that God made Adam and Eve as a pair and the entire generations of humans that have born ever since evolved from this first pair. For instance, in Surah Al-Nisa, it is mentioned, “O humans! Be pious (careful of your duty) to your Lord, Who created you from a single self (soul), and from it He created its mate, and from them He has spread a multitude of men and women” (Al-Nisa 4:1 cited in El-Najjar, 2007). This verse reveals about the commencement of life with one soul from which, its mate was made. Over the passage of
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Investigations on crystal structure and mechanism of AlkB have involved the use of both native and recombinant protein. Recombinant enzyme, entire as well as truncated form is produced through homologous expression; the former cloned in pET21b vector and expressed in BL21 (DES) competent cells; while the latter cloned in pET30a vector and expressed in BL21 competent cells.
A Bonding system connects various pieces of conductive equipment together to keep them at the same potential. In bonding we join all metallic non electrical parts together in order to establish a continuous electric path across them. Static sparking cannot take place between objects that are the same potential.
Of course, original text could be helpful on how the play might be staged, and, ultimately, some suggestions should be provided on what is this play about. Similar to Franco Ziffirelli’s motto “great love is the great antidote of the great hate,” my own theme of this play as an overall message should be firstly proposed, making some implicit things, such as love and hostility, viewed explicitly and analyzed thoroughly in the current research.
This is a pair of sandals purported to have been introduced to East Africa from India through trade in the late 13th century. It is made of a carved wooden sole and a projection made of ivory and a coiled snake on the tip. The surface is decorated with a pattern of repeated lines together with some Islamic based art.
This behavior often takes place whenever a captor is treated well by its hostage, and there is no abuse that is experienced in their relationship. Traumatic bonding can be described as Stockholm syndrome, but in this case violence is experienced, meaning traumatic bonding is the relationship that develops between two individuals in which one person is intimidated, abused, harassed or beaten by the other person in this case the one in hostage is mistreated by his/her captor.
close relationship is not clearly understood.” The purpose of this paper is to share the results of research on maternal bonding, define the topic of maternal bonding, discuss the key issues surrounding the topic, and develop a management plan including counseling that is
However, they differ from both species in diploid chromosomal number, body size and cranial form. Gibbons are inhabitants of vast habitats all around Southeast Asia. The adult size may vary from 45 cm to 90
ing to statistics put forward by the Cancer Prevention Plan, in 2009, one in two Australian males will at some point be diagnosed with cancer and 1 in 14 will suffer from skin cancer. Among women the risk is slightly less at 1 in 14 being affected. The Cancer Council Australia
Most of this individual, who are Hong Kong citizens, are underprivileged thus are not within reach of accessing basic government infrastructure such as public housing or even enjoying the social welfare benefits (Cheng, 2000). With the current available
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