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Permanent Pair Bonding - Research Paper Example

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Permanent Pair Bonding
Pair-bonds make a component of the unique mosaic of humans that includes childhood, brains, private sexual intercourse, concealed ovulation, and symbols embedded in culture. …
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Permanent Pair Bonding

Download file to see previous pages... 227). Pair-bonds can be defined as long-term affiliation between two individuals that also includes a sexual relationship. This relationship is relatively enduring irrespective of whether it is monogamous or polygamous. Various hypotheses have surfaced regarding the evolution of human pair-bonds, with some considering it a consequence of the competition of male mating while others considering it paternal provisioning’s adaptation. This paper explores the evolution of permanent pair bonding in humans.
Pair bonding is one of the most fundamental behaviors in humans like it is in all other primates and mammals. The importance of pair bonding is secondary probably only to such physiological needs as food and air. It is a natural behavior because of which it is commonly exhibited by both humans and non-human living beings, though in humans, a wide range of factors influence humans’ perceptions about and trends in pair bonding. Humans’ pair bonding patterns and behaviors are considerably different from those of other primates, humans being superior to them. Although the bond between a child and a mother in humans is homologous with the bond seen in other primates as well as mammals, yet the pair bond between a man and a woman and the pair bond between a man and a child in humans are not comparable to any terrestrial primate’s or mammals’ bonds (Immerman, 2003, p. 138). ...
mother and a child in humans is similar to other terrestrial primates but the bases of affiliative bond between a man and a woman or between a child and a man is dissimilar between humans and primates. The biological explanation of the evolution of pair-bonding is explained by the research on the monogamous rodents that has led to the emergence of a neurobiological model of formation of pair-bond (Young and Wang, 2004). The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin play an important role in dealing with the social cues that help in individual recognition. Reward learning and reinforcement is caused by mesolimbic dopamine. During the process of mating, dopamine receptors and neuropeptide get activated concurrently in the brain’s reward centers which leads to the conditioned preference for partner in pair-bonding. The differences observed in the tendency to develop pair bonds across different species is explained by the differential regulation of the expression of neuropeptide receptor. A very important perspective of the evolution of human pairing is grounded in religion. This is the perspective believed by a vast majority of people that believe in God and typically those that belong to an Abrahamic religion. It is mentioned in the religious scriptures that God made Adam and Eve as a pair and the entire generations of humans that have born ever since evolved from this first pair. For instance, in Surah Al-Nisa, it is mentioned, “O humans! Be pious (careful of your duty) to your Lord, Who created you from a single self (soul), and from it He created its mate, and from them He has spread a multitude of men and women” (Al-Nisa 4:1 cited in El-Najjar, 2007). This verse reveals about the commencement of life with one soul from which, its mate was made. Over the passage of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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