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[Course] Introduction The connection of the ‘Old World’ with the ‘New World’ strengthens the ideologies of colonization and racial hierarchy. American colonization has always been under discussion by intellectuals and academics for its making, transformation and relation to the other world…
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Download file to see previous pages... However, they were unable to identify where the American Indians came from. Later, many scientists described them as the lost tribes of Israel based on their traditional values, similar cultural ethics and languages. However, the new discovery of remains of Kennewick man opened many new discussions in this regard. Controversy of Kennewick Man Kennewick man case came up with many disputes among the people of different origins and classes. First, controversy is the legal controversy that was played in the courts and congress about the possession of the remains. Second was the dispute of emotional attachment to the theories of evolution versus intelligent design. In 1996, Washington was under the management of U.S Army Corps of Engineers (COE) who found a skeleton near the banks of the Columbian River. They asked an anthropologist, James Chatter to examine the skeleton. James Chatter considered it to be related to Caucasian people who lived in the Caucasian region and had more flat faces. Later, an ultraviolet examination of the bones made it one of the oldest complete set of remains found in the America. It was found to be 9000 years old. In 1996, Umatilla filed a case to return the remains to them and get it buried under The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) that Corps of Engineers (COE) accepted. Later in the year 1996, eight scientists sued the CEO and Department of Interior saying that remains of Kennewick does not fulfill the demands of NAGPRA. It is neither related biologically nor culturally to any of the modern Indian tribe. They asked for the possession of the remains for scientific research purpose. On the basis of Chatter’s claim that Kennewick has Caucasian background, Asatru Folk which was a religious group from Northern California claimed that the Kennewick should be handed over to him as he shares the ancestors with him. The controversy continued for the possession of Kennewick man and in 1997 a United States Representative, Richard Hasting introduced a bill in the assembly to make amendments in NAGPRA that would allow the study of remains of Kennewick man and will help to solve the issue. After a long struggle, in 1999 some federal scientists were able to study Kennewick Man and they found that it belongs to Asian people rather than the tribes of America claiming its remains. They also claimed that DNA test should be done to prove this claim that was opposed by the tribes saying that for scientists ‘race’ is a social construct and is unable to be determined biologically. Also, biological affiliation is not necessary as per NAGPRA rule and it concentrates more on the affiliation of cultural affiliation. Origin of the People in the America When it comes to origin of the people in America, the major fight is between two groups of two very different schools of thought. First, who belief the creation of humans is by the God. Second those who strongly belief in the “theory of Evolution”. Both sides, proponents of evolution and those who reject it on the basis of religious belief, have emotional sentiments over this issue. Theory of evolution says that humans are the descendents of a tiny cell of primordial protoplasm washed up on an ocean beach about thirty two billion years ago. Those who reject the theory of evolution are of the view that if it is purely by chance then there is no point of existence of God. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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