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Water, Agriculture and Irrigation Simulation for CROPS - Statistics Project Example

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Cordoba Spain experiences the highest rainfalls in mid-February with a recording of 30m. The minimum downpour in the area recorded falls at midyear with 1mm of rainfall recorded. …
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Water, Agriculture and Irrigation Simulation for CROPS
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Water, Agriculture and Irrigation Simulation for CROPS Question one Cordoba Spain experiences the highest rainfalls in mid February with a recording of 30m. The minimum downpour in the area recorded falls at midyear with 1mm of rainfall recorded. February, October and November experience the highest amount of rainfall in a whole year up to 25mm. From early June, summer sets in with no rainfall recorded at all, till mid September. Cordoba experience the highest temperature recorded in a whole year at august when rainfall is at the lowest. The area experiences only one dry season from June to august and wet two wet seasons from January to match and September to December. Temperatures are at the highest in the month of July and August with temperatures reaching high as 40 °C. Temperatures are recorded the lowest in late January and early February with temperatures reaching less than 5°C. ETO is highest in the month of June to July with records reaching up to 7mm. The month of December and January record the least ET0 at an average of 1mm a day. The ideal period to grow crops in Cordoba is from January after which they will take 4 months to be harvested. The major climatic constraints include high temperatures. Cordoba experiences high temperatures in the mid year. The increasing temperatures occur in the summer season after which most of the crops have already been harvested. Increasing Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is also high from June to December and is increasing at an increasing rate. Carbon dioxide should not be directly proportional to the oxygen released to the atmosphere. Increase in carbon in the atmosphere lead to low productivity. Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may have direct impact on agriculture productivity. This may also lead to extreme weather. A warmer climate could bring low rainfall which results to low water availability.

Cordoba rainfall data.
Question two
The maize sown on 15th February yielded 2.726 with a biomass of 8.388 ton/ha with a potential biomass of 18.314 ton/ha both in ratio of 46% with a water productivity of 1.01kg yield per m3 evapotranspired. Canopy Cover (CC) of the maize sown in 15th February increased from 0 to 96% at the 15th day to 40th day and reduced from 85th day up to 111th day. Water depletion (DR) is increasing as the maize crop grows with water depleted at an increasing rate up to 150mm of water. The maximum water depletion is at the 151% from the 110th to 130th day. 15th February is the ideal time to sow maize. When maize was sown at 15th april
When the maize is sown on 15th April, actual yield produced was 0.196 ton/ha with a biomass of 6.702 ton/ha and a potential biomass of 29.405 ton/ha with a 23% ratio. Water productivity is 0.11 kg per yield which is much less than 15th February. HI is at 53% with a CC recorded at 80% from 40th up to 6 5th day then starts reducing. The highest recorded transpiration (TR) is 5mm a day with the lowest at 1mm a day. Water depletion is highest at the time of harvesting with 150mm and less at the 1st to 12th day after sowing. When maize was sown on 15th February water use was low with higher output in yield with a 2.726ton/ha, while on 12th April output yield was low 0.196 ton/ha and high water consumption.
When the maize is sown on 15th April
Stimulation run of 15th April.
Question three
When sprinkler method of irrigation is used for 15th February production was 6.440 ton/ha Water preferred was 50% while water applied was 15%. ET Water productivity was 1.49 kg yield per m3
Question five
When the crop cycle was changed to 110d and senescence to 95 d in the 15th February with no irrigation, total productivity decreased slightly as compared with full irrigation. Evapotranspired was high as compared with full irrigation. Actual productivity with rain fed water was 2.381ton/ha with a biomass production of 8.387 ton/ ha with a potential biomass of 18.314 ton/ha.
Numerical output of 15th February with no irrigation
Stimulation run of 12th February with no irrigation
15th February with the added irrigation total yield was 2.642ton/ha with a biomass of 8.387ton /ha. Without full irrigation water stress was 15% while with full irrigation water stress was 1%.

Stimulation run with irrigation
Numerical output of 12th February with irrigation
Question six
Yes Aquacrop can be used to stimulate water in future climates, because it can predict production under different water conditions. That’s both rain fed and irrigation. It can also investigate various strategies, under both present and future climate. Different types of soil can be used and a certain plant used in order to determine the output yield without irrigation. Increase in CO2 will decrease overall plant water use. The end result will be high water productivity in a given area.
Question seven
Yes Aquacrop is very useful. It can be used in various studies because it incorporates both biomass and yield under CO2 climate. It can also be used to stimulate water in future climates, because it can predict production under different water conditions. It can also investigate various strategies, under both present and future climate. Aquacrop can still yield output in the adverse .Aquacrop will still yield wheat in winter.
Bibliography
Noble, E. 2010. “Europe Climate and Agriculture”. Ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Read More
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