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Many sociologists and different schools of thoughts have written texts about this. Nonetheless, unless social solidarity is advanced or maintained, crime and delinquency will arise.
The Chicago School has had a lot of influence with regards to crime and delinquency. Notably, the Chicago school had developed after World War One with its emphasis on urbanization and immigration as the main drivers of social change, which led to the rise of social crime due to social disorganization. Notably, the rapid urbanization and industrialization synonymous with the 20th century were followed by massive tides of immigration to the US. However, the Chicago school had lots of ideas with regards to social order and human nature, which led some criminological theorists toward control theories that did not take conformity for granted as the natural order (Lily, Cullen, & Ball., 2011). Some say that the human offspring depends on other humans within the family setting for a long time.
Reiss’s Theory of Personal and Social Controls also tackle issues dealing with delinquency. In one of his articles, Albert J. Reiss defined certain terminologies pertaining to criminology studies. According to him, personal control was the individual ability to desist meeting needs in approaches that clash with the rules and norms of the community. Social control, on its part, was the ability of social institutions and groups to make rules or norms effective (Lily, Cullen, & Ball., 2011). According to him, delinquency comes about where there is a comparative absence of internalized rules and norms that govern behavior in line with the social system norms synonymous with legal penalties. Reiss also reiterates that conformity arises when an individual accepts roles and rules or when the individual merely submits to them.
Moreover, Nye’s Family-Focused Theory of Social Controls expounds of the Chicago
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They noted that social Darwinism was soon replaced by other criminological theories because it blames the victim, justifies inhumane treatment of people who are judged as inferior, and the rise of other social and behavioral sciences during the 1960s (Lilly et al.
They noted the use of “self-report survey” as a prominent accessible research methodology for adolescents (Lilly et al. 385). Cohort studies that used a longitudinal research design provided evidence that criminal involvement during early adolescence often led to criminal behaviors during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lilly et al.
The US government is structured in such a way that accommodates the nation, otherwise referred to as Federal, and the State. The Federal Government is further broken down into substructure that includes: the Legislative Branch who takes care of promulgating statutes and policies; the Executive, which composes the President, cabinet agencies and military service, and finally the Judiciary Branch more commonly known as the courts.
For example, trial by battle is based on the belief that whoever God favored wins and is the innocent one (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2011, p.19). The weakness of this trial is that strong warriors can continue doing criminal deeds, since they tend to win. Furthermore,
In the true essence, pleasure and freedom from pain are the ultimate desirables according to the theory of utilitarianism. There is lack of clarity about what constitutes pleasure or happiness and the standards of happiness vary among humans and animals. Despite humans
ther expanded by three significant modern control theories: John Hagan’s power-control theory from, control balance theory from John Tittle, and coercion theory, developed by Mark Colvin. Hirschi’s social bond theory asserts that in the absence of social bonds or the
It rejects the idea that criminality is inherent to some human beings. Furthermore, labeling theorists use the statistics of imprisoned minorities to describe racial disparity, which government intervention
On the other hand, labeling theorists argues that the criminal justice system promotes establishment of criminal behaviors in certain fronts. For example, more than 58% of African American males aged between 20 and 29 years are either in prison or under the control of the
edged that whereas the criminological theories have varied perspectives, they are both guided by the fact that criminality is something that develops over time as individuals grow (pp 329). In this regard, a lot of focus is often directed at the conditions that create an
s much as the law protects all citizens against crime, there is disparities in terms of gender and how crime is presented in different races, gender and people within a certain social class. The rate of crime varies depending on environmental factors. Disparities are presented
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