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Culture Profiles of the USA and India - Research Paper Example

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The most frequently deployed tool to assess culture in the academic literature is that of Hofestede's indices of culture properties. This model consists of four categories: Power Distance, Individualism, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity. Hofstede (2003) defined these five dimensions as follows: power distance: The extent to which power is distributed equally within a society and the degree that society accepts this distribution…
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Culture Profiles of the USA and India
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Culture Profiles of the USA and India

Download file to see previous pages... In an individual culture, free will is highly valued. In a collective culture, personal needs are less important than the group's needs. This dimension influences the role government is expected to play in markets; masculinity versus femininity: A measure of a society's goal orientation: a masculine culture emphasizes status derived from wages and position; a feminine culture emphasizes human relations and quality of life., and time orientation: The degree to which a society does or does not value long-term commitments and respect for tradition. Long-term traditions and commitments hamper institutional change.
Schuler & Rogovsky (1998) explain the model further with appropriate conclusions regarding some of the national cultures in following words, "The first dimension of national culture, Power Distance, indicates the extent to which the fact that power is distributed unequally is accepted in the society by those who do and do not possess power. In a culture with small Power Distance, it is a common belief that inequality within an organization (as well as within society) should be minimized. However, in a culture with a large Power Distance, the common belief is that there should be a certain degree of inequality in the society (organization) Uncertainty Avoidance, is defined as the degree to which uncertainty and unpredictability are tolerated in a society (as well as within an organization). In societies with a high degree of Uncertainty Avoidance, people feel uncomfortable in unstructured or risky situation. In societies low on Uncertainty Avoidance, people are more willing to take risks and can tolerate uncertainty easily Individualism (as opposed to Collectivism) is the degree to which people in a society value an individual's opinion, and put their individual interests and the interests of their immediate family above those of others. On the other hand, in collectivist societies, such as Taiwan (Province of China), Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong, people distinguish between "in-groups" and "outgroups." They expect their in-groups (clan, work team, organization, community, country) to look after them in exchange for absolute loyalty to the group Masculinity (as opposed to Femininity), is the degree to which the dominant values in societies, such as those of Japan or the United States, are "masculine," i.e., have characteristics such as assertiveness, and are in favor of the acquisition of money and material goods. However, in societies, such as those in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, the dominant values are "feminine," i.e., they place a high value on the quality of life and caring for others.

Culture profiles of the USA and India

An analysis was carried out using the secondary data available in literature(as referred to in citations) and other research resources to elicit ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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