Running Head: INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION & NCLB ACT Sociology: Inequality in Education & NCLB Act Providing education is one of the prime concerns of every state. A highly educated citizen gets wider scopes of job opportunities…
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The schools lack records of actual data, and therefore, tracking down the dropout students is becoming a major problem. Also, the mobility of students is adding up to the problem of providing compulsory education to every child (Shaul, 2006). The problem of inequality in education is mostly experienced by the minority, oppressed and socially backward classes. Poverty, lack of awareness, parental support and faulty education system of the state can be responsible in a combined way for this inequality. But with the introduction of ‘No Child Left Behind Act’, the scenario is slowly changing. Different programs are being undertaken, in order to improve education system in the USA. Identification of Social Problem: Cause, Nature, Scope, Magnitudes, etc Judging from the social perspective, a sense of inequality prevails in USA. Apart from the “segmentation” in terms of economy, a division in the educational system can also be noticed. While children from the affluent families attended private schools, children from middle-class or working parents were primarily sent to public schools. Also, it was seen that children belonging to the upper class mostly got admissions in the best colleges whereas children from socially inferior or lower economic groups were left behind. In such cases, often the question of manipulation cannot be ruled out. Discriminations were made basing on race, culture and family education (Shinn & Whitley, 1985, p.104). As a result, future prospects of a child remained hugely dependent on the choice of schools. Due to these, deserving students were not getting opportunities in the USA. Poverty is the root cause of this social problem. The state policies for education are also to be blamed for their preference of public schools over the private schools. Other than these, laws and regulations regarding issues related to dress code, behavior, use of gadgets inside the school premises, etc., varied not only from school to school but also from region to region. This limited the scope of educational development, especially of the backward classes. Therefore, it became necessary to formulate an act which would safeguard the rights of the poor and unprivileged sections (Bowles, n.d.). Immediate/ Possible Cause, theory The American students were failing in the international standards of education. More than one-fifth of the total population does not have the basic education. Results of standardized tests like SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Tests), are poorer compared to the past decades. Other problems include mobility of students and high costs of availing higher education (Hayes, 2008, p.7). Factors that have affected achievements of the USA students are home and family factors (49%), class size (8%) and teachers’ qualifications (43%) (Foreman, 1999, p.75). Historical, Cultural, Ethnic, Organizational, Systemic, and Demographic Context Nearly 250 years ago, education system in the USA was in the hands of local communities or religious institutions. Later on in 1791, the Federal government, for the first time, introduced The Bill Of Rights for educational purpose (Hayes, 2008, pp. 3-4). The system of ‘Public School’ emerged during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Gradually, the state took the largest part of the responsibility. Horace Mann on behalf of the US House of Representatives introduced ‘Department of Education’. During 1960’s, education was associated with poverty in the Parliamentary Bills. However, educational inequality became most prominent
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