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Overpopulation - Research Paper Example

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Introduction There are three popular definitions of overpopulation. The one given by T. R Malthus says that overpopulation occurs when population growth causes the output per head to fall to the subsistence level and the rising mortality rate causes population growth to stop…
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Overpopulation Research Paper
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Download file to see previous pages... Causes There are various causes of overpopulation. It can be attributed to an increase in birth rate or a decline in mortality rate due to medical advances, technology and better healthcare facilities. Population in a country also increases due to the influx of immigrants or due to a decrease in emigrants (people who leave the country). Countries like the USA and Canada experienced a rise in population because of the increase in immigrants from overseas. Unsustainable use of resources depletes them, which in turn leads to overpopulation (McLeish, 2010). China is the most populated country in the world and India is the second most populated country. In India, several religious and cultural factors are responsible for overpopulation. For instance, many religious people in the rural areas of India are against the idea of using contraceptives as they consider using them as sinful. The causes of overpopulation in India can be generalized to other Asian developing countries because they have similar cultures. Following are the causes of overpopulation in developing Asian countries similar to India: 1. Early age at marriage Early marriages take place in primitive cultures like those of South East Asia. Parents want their children to get married at an early age because of family traditions. Marriage at an early age increases the reproductive span especially for women. Young girls who are in their teenage are very fertile and after an early marriage they have babies one after the other. 2. Early puberty Girls in hot climatic areas reach puberty at the age of 12 or even less. Parents want their daughters to get married as soon as they reach puberty. Girls who get married right after puberty tend to beget more children. 3. Standard of living People who have a low standard of living want to have more earning hands so they produce more children. Due to poor medical facilities, women in rural areas have miscarriages and children die in infancy. As a result parents want to have more children because of high infant mortality. 4. Education Parents who are literate do justice to their children by giving them due attention and care. Instead of having seven or eight children, they have nuclear families and concentrate on the upbringing of their children, give them proper education and morals. Unfortunately, the rural poor are illiterate and they keep on having children for the sake of having more earning hands and hence do not realize the importance of good upbringing. 5. Social Customs and Tradition In a lot of developing countries, the social customs and norms make it binding on parents to get their children married at an early age. Daughters are thought to be a burden on parents, and relatives, community members consider it shameful to have unwed daughters (Cmai, 1974). 6. Rise in Consumption Levels As the consumption level rises, the output per head falls. The aggregate demand in a country rises and this depicts that people want to consume more. A country might progress but the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita will fall due to rising consumption levels. 7. Low level of technology Because of low levels of technology, a country operates below its potential output. The output per head is a lot less than the output per head if technology were used. 8. Lack of Resources When the rate at which resources deplete increases, upward pressure is put on the price level. The general price level in the economy ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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Overpopulation in India
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