The Z notation is a mathematical notation that describes system properties without describing the process in which these properties are archived. This helps in the description of what the system does without describing how it does those functions. Mathematical data types are used…
The precondition increments the value of count by one every time a value is added.
The precondition indicates that the limit does not change.
The precondition indicates that the number of items added cannot exceed 256, which is the limit.
If the item to be added in the sequence already exists, the item should not be added to the list. The schema ALREADYADDED helps to control this.
The precondition tests if the item to be added already exists in the given sequence.
If the value exists , then the system returns a value (ALREADY_ADDED)
If the value is already in the sequence the resulting sequence does not change, this precondition is given by
The function INFORM: is given by:
Combining the three schemas gives the general expression for pushing the item onto the stack.
The item (i) becomes a subset of the ITEM
The resulting count + 1 must be less than the limit value
The limit value does not change
The sign depicts change of state
If the sequence has the item identical to one being input then, the system displays 'ALREADY_ADDED'
(2)POPPING THE ITEM FROM THE STACK
The schema for displaying an item is
For the item to be displayed it must be contained in the sequence
The function takes the name of the requested item and finds it and displays all information about the given ITEM.
There is no change in state of the system, this is illustrated by the symbol
To prevent displaying an item not in the sequence, the system should return a NOT_FOUND result, the expression is given by;
Each piece can then be described informally with a commentary. The Z schemes describe the dynamic and static aspects of a system. The static aspect of a system includes the states the system can occupy and the relationship maintained when the system transits from state to state. The dynamic aspects include the operation that are possible, the changes that occur and the input - output relationship.
(1) The list of persons name and corresponding salaries (can be used by a company to store data of the employees working in that company and also store the salaries of these people.) the reasons for using this type of data are
Several people using one name may earn the same salary, the system can be coded to display number of people earning the same salary, this means that the tests data type can be subjected to various operations.
To test for rotation a number (i) and the square of the number (i2) can be used. The test data comprise of different numbers and their squares, these numbers form a sequence. The elements can be arranged so that the top most elements are the first members of the given sequence and the last element is greatest number in that list. On rotating left the greatest number and its square becomes the first element of the set.
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(“The Z Notation Math Problem Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words”, n.d.)
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(The Z Notation Math Problem Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words)
“The Z Notation Math Problem Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1512444-the-z-notation.
List the bonds in the most likely order of the interest rates (yields to maturity) of the bonds from highest to lowest. Explain your work. Answer: X: A corporate bond rate BBB W: A corporate bond rate AAA Y: A corporate bond rated AAA with a shorter time to maturity than bonds W and X Z: A corporate bond rated AAA with the same time to maturity as bond Y that trades in a more liquid market than bonds W, X, or Y There has always been a strong relationship between the risks attached to a security with the return earned on a security, and this risk-return trade off tells us return which one should expect on a security which has high level of uncertainty (high risk) or low level of uncer
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The Hotpoint Front Control Dishwasher in White is $289.00 at Home Depot. It is not classified as energy efficient. The GE 24in. Front Control Dishwasher in Black with Steam PreWash is on sale this week for $359.10 at Home Depot, from a normal price of $399.00, and is classified as energy efficient.
If the sides of each triangle are measured and summed for each triangle then the resulting value will be equal. That is to say if triangle A sides are found to be o, p, q, and triangle B sides are x, y, z then o + p + q = x + y + z Proof: Suppose triangle A has sides o, p, q and triangle B has sides x, y, z and one of the sides for each triangle passes through the centre of the circles then that those two sides for each triangle will be equal.
The confidence interval is the result from the test statistic N (0, 1).
Test statistic: Under H0, tn - 2 distribution where a is the sample slope parameter, A is the population slope parameter, s is the sample estimate for the standard deviation. The results from Q4 are a = 0.0867, s = 1.4495 and Cxx = 267.6 and A = 0.
Sampling methods include random sampling, cluster sampling and snowball sampling, the selection of the sampling method to be used will depend on the nature of study, and in this paper we consider how we can calculate the sample size given the population size.
Scientists necessitated to express large and long numbers in reduced form by using base 10 the exponent of which corresponds to the number of zeros or decimal places before or after the units digit. Hence, instead
made into a continuous process whereby, intervals that comprise [0, 1] – (I1I2) are subdivided into three subintervals, while removing their middle thirds. This can be denoted as Cantor Set C = In whereby In+1 is constructed by trisecting In and remove the middle third with
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