LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT AND CONCEPTS OF VALIDITY Answer the following questions 1. Differences between the levels of measurement (type of measurement scale-nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio- ). Providing an example of data that can be transformed from one level of measurement to another and another example of data that cannot be transformed…
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In the nominal, numbers are used for the purpose of classifying data, words or letters would be congruently appropriate. For example, data or answers given to variables such as employment status (classified as 1); occupation (classified as 2) or place of residence (classified as 3). Usually, numbers are preferred since text takes up more space and longer to type out. In ordinal scales, values assigned to measurements can be ordered, (for example, the shoe size) and the numbers of an ordinal scale present an ordered relationship between the numbered items. Interval scale on the other hand, has measurements that are not only classified but also ordered, therefore, it consist properties of the two previous scales, but there are equal distances between each interval on the scale from the low end until the high end (example: Temperature scale of 96o and 98oC is the same as between 100o and 102 oC.
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Quantitative researches typically specify the number of research participants as sample from the population and display the data on numerous events taking place or biological variables. There is a statistical section in the research that reflects the cause and effect relationships.
Such factors are of major interest to schools of nursing and members of their faculty as they may be able to adjust their curriculum or admission requirements accordingly in order to achieve a higher rate of passing in the examination. Findings of this investigation may also help future test-takers in determining the type of preparatory programs and courses that they should take in order to aid them in succeeding at the examination.
Contextually, qualitative research is defined as a method of investigation engaged in certain different academic orders, usually in social sciences along with market trends among others. Qualitative research intends to collect in-depth knowledge of human activities as well as reasons behind such performance (Ospina, 2004).
Whereas physical forms of transport have accompanying health benefits, the researcher sought to investigate the sensitivity of the university towards the issue. These physical forms revolve around walking and running as well as bicycle riding. A random sample of 30 students was considered for the survey and the results used to make conclusions for the study.
The consistency and stability of the results ensure that the facts are straight and comprehensible. The validity of the results means that the presentation must be based on the true nature of the fact findings. This implies that; how well a test used to measure what it is intended to measure should be accurate and reliable by the researcher.
There have been negating views which supplement the importance of both the researches. Quantitative research methods are used by the researchers when they wish to make statements of situations which might take place in a population. This research style is based on probabilistic measures which form the basis of the theory.
Adolescent access to cigarettes contributes to of the adoption of smoking behavior. From the research already done, there is sufficient evidence to prove that children brought up in smoking families are more prone to start smoking at an early age.
The research is going to determine the relationship between library’s sources of income (partnerships, joint ventures, and organizational sponsorships) which is the independent variable and financial stability which is the dependent or outcome variable, since the Clayton County public library was facing financial deficits which needed to be alleviated.
The author does not discuss her research question but the scope of the article suggests the following research question.
The study’s design is also not explicit but literature review seems to have informed the study’s results, as the author refers to different studies.
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