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"Literature Review, Research Question, Design and Conclusion onElevation of the head in reducing/preventing ventilator acquire pneumonia"
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effects of the mechanical use of medical devices that in the long run alter the normal physiological setup of the body internally causing a recess in either the chemical or fluid constituents of the body.
Apparently, there has been various advances suggesting just how the ventilator machine comes into play in afflicting the severely ill patients or the intensive care unit patients and the cutting edge is that its majorly the nasal and bronchial constituents being altered hence reverting to pneumonic episodes.
Notably, a bronchoscopy technique has been severally used to analyze the deep default caused by the ventilator system and has been seen that the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BAL).The high incidences of mortality and morbidity serve as primarily the main buffers of the ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP).
Polit and Beck in their journal essentials of nursing 8th edition have tried to advance the ideology and theory that head elevation can serve as an aiding element in preventing if not curing the ventilator associated pneumonia. Furthermore they argue that the bronchoscopy technique is not a sufficient choice in analyzing the pneumonic constituents. Nonetheless, they have advanced the head elevation ideology as a way of rescue or retribution of some sort.
On the contrary, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be defined as a general infection that is common in critical care settings in hospital and is associated with severe clinical outcomes. According to the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, VAP is defined as a pneumonia that occurs 2 days after the commencement of mechanical aeration (Tablan, 2004). Aspiration of gastric substances is known to be a chief entry path of bacteria into the lungs, which is a significant aspect in the development of VAP. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a prevalent nosocomial contagion in severely sick patients and is a primary contributor to prolonged stay in the hospital (Muscedere et al.
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These questions characterize new areas of investigation, where the study focuses on describing the phenomena of study (Newton, Bower, & Williams, 2004). Examples of these studies of questions are those guiding case studies, and those centered on describing the incidence and the prevalence of certain phenomena.
An informed application of the provisions of the caring theory developed by Kristen M. Swanson could help in reducing and mitigating the impacts of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The theory supplies the structural and theoretical approaches that might help in combating the nosocomial infection.
s a cognitive trait allowing subjects to modulate perception, emotion and behaviour according to specific suggestions” (Carli, Cavallaro & Santarcangelo, 2007, p.64).
Individual differences exist in the level of susceptibility to hypnosis. High hypnotisable’s, generally,
The pneumonia associated with ventilation is under observation to prevent it from further affecting the patients. Various strategies are in place to reduce the exposure of the bacteria and the time a patient stays on the mechanical ventilation. The bacteria spread very
Its diagnosis varies from one hospital to another, but it requires a modern infiltrate in chest X-rays together with other factors.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung condition, which affects the microscopic air sacs called alveoli. It is an infection caused by
According to the paper VAP is a hospital acquired infection of the lungs that develops after an intubated individual is hospitalized for not less than 48 hours. Patients with VAP often present with the following symptoms; increase in body temperature, altered sputum colour and thickness as well as leukocytosis.
As the report declares a semi-upright posture in those that are in ventilated areas is recommenced to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. VAP is a common intensive care that is recommended to reduce the infection. There are arguments that have been risen that ventilator-associated pneumonia is able to reduce the risk of obtaining pneumonia.
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