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Most common form of congenital heart diseases is defects in septation, atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, stenotic valvular lesions or coronary artery abnormalities (Schoen and Mitchell, 2009). Ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital defects occurring in the human heart. Defect at the level of ventricle i.e. inter ventricular septum is called ventricular septal defect (VSD). It occurs in 1 of every 500 live births. The main pathology in a septal defect is that left ventricular pressure is higher than the right ventricular pressure resulting in blood flowing from left to right and pulmonary blood flow increases. Clinically ventricular septal defects can be divided into small, medium and large. A small VSD is asymptomatic, a medium VSD presents with fatigue, cardiac enlargement and audible apex beat, whereas, a large VSD presents with pulmonary hypertension (Kumar and Clark, 2009).
Hemodynamics is an important part of the cardiovascular system as it deals with the forces that pump the heart. Hemodynamics in an individual with congenital malformation is affected due to the defect. The factors affecting the hemodynamics of a ventricular septal defect are the size of the ventricular defect, pressure changes in right and left ventricular chambers and the pulmonary resistance. A ventricular septal defect may not be evident at the birth of a child because the pressure in the right and left ventricles is equal and there is no shunting. As the pressure between the two ventricles starts to change, shunting also correspond and the ventricular defect becomes clinically evident. These changes do not apply to a patient of Down syndrome in which pulmonary resistance changes do not lead to signs of VSD. In VSD the shunt volume is linked to the size of the defect in the ventricle and the pulmonary vascular resistance. If the ventricular defect is not accompanied by
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The prevalence rate of congenital heart defect is 0.9% at birth. Although most of these cases do not do not produce symptoms severe cases require compulsive surgery or medical treatments (American Heart Organization, 2010). Congenital heart defect is caused by the incomplete development of the heart at birth due to incompatibility of the programmed cell development and division, cell migration, and cell death.
While using the M-mode, systolic division the essential parts of the human anatomy is illustrated through mitral regurgitation, though this result has not been specified. Francis has provided medical and physicist knowledge, with a modification of the outline of organ-viewing things that use waves that corresponds with organ motion and shape.
There has been a steady increase in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases both in the developed and developing countries. This has been attributed by various literature sources to the lifestyle changes among the populations as well as diet and genetic factors.
Medically, it is quite dangerous when the venous blood mixes with the arterial blood since the occurrence of this situation may lead to shunt. The venous blood has extremely low content of oxygen, as opposed to the richly oxygenated blood of the arteries.
It is a widely available, inexpensive, and well validated tool that allows for comprehensive evaluation of the right ventricle's size and function. With improvements in ultrasound techniques and methods, there are many qualitative and quantitative indicators that, when used in conjunction with noninvasive pulmonary hemodynamics can provide better diagnostic and prognostic information needed by clinicians.
Use of Nitric Oxide in Infants
Until a decade ago, newborns with this condition were managed with oxygen therapy and ventilation. The advent of new treatment modality, inhaled nitric oxide therapy, has changed the outcome of infants suffering from hypoxemic respiratory failure (1) and there is enormous research going on in this field.
These famous people have a family member who is affected by this condition. According to the National Down Syndrome Society (2009), Down syndrome is most common single cause of human birth defects and the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition. One in every 733 babies is born with Down syndrome.
At the cellular level, the malformation is associated with abnormalities of chromosomes with trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Tetralogy of the fallot can also be associated with chromosome 22 and microdeletions. There is a 3 percent risk of recurrence of in families. Some untreated
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