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Strategies to enchance oral hygiene of the ventilated adult critically ill patient - Research Proposal Example


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Strategies to enchance oral hygiene of the ventilated adult critically ill patient

Dental plaque build up has been increasingly associated with nosocomial respiratory infections. Therefore, the prevention of colonization of pathogens in the oropharyngeal cavity acts as an effective control measure for infection (Pruitt & Jacobs, 2011: p38). Oral care, for critically ill patients, is often an undervalued practice for intensive care health settings. However, a significant collection of evidence that associations the colonization by pathogens of the oropharyngeal cavity and dental plaque with VAP, or ventilator-associated pneumonia exists. In addition, provision of oral care for critically ill patients on a fixed basis is a vital part of giving comfort for patients in critical care (Judith et al, 2012: p125). The optimization of oral health care for patients who are intubated is made difficult because of the presence of orogastric tube and endo-tracheal tubes. Once dental plaque reaches its critical thickness, it serves as a reservoir for anaerobic and aerobic pathogens. If this plaque is not removed, it sets off a complex cascade of biological activity through which pathogens fix them to tooth and mucosal surfaces and what ensues is overgrowth of pathogens (Munro, 2010: p28). In addition, insufficient or neglected oral care acts as the foremost predisposing factor for stomatitis, mucositis, gingivitis, and other oral conditions that supply pathogens with extra entry points. Just a handful of research studies compare the frequency and mode of oral hygiene that is needed

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to decrease or prevent oropharyngeal colonization (Coyer et al, 2011: p75). Comprehending the relationship that exists between the two will aid in coming up with strategies to prevent the above. This paper will discuss the various strategies, which healthcare professionals could use to ensure the maintenance of oral hygiene for critically ill patients who are prone to oropharyngeal colonization and infections. Background Dental plaque refers to a dynamic bio-film that could be defined in clinical terms as deposits of bacteria that are difficult to rinse off (Hixson et al, 2008: p49). Dental plaque harbors numerous different species of microbes with a one-mm3 plaque volume that contains approximately one hundred million bacteria. In patients who are critically ill and are mechanically ventilated, their mouths are propped open using endo-tracheal tubes that expose the oral cavity, in turn increasing the susceptibility of the oral cavity to desiccation (Cutler & Davis, 2010: p390). Oral intubation, in addition, acts to reduce the role of saliva in cleansing the mouth and impedes nursing staff in the provision of oral hygiene. The patient is also likely to suffer from; impaired cough reflexes, as well as the inability to clear out accumulated secretions. Because of a combination of the problems stated, intensivitis are gaining more awareness on the important role played by dental plaque in the etiology of VAP, or ventilator-associated pneumonia (Grap et al, 2010: p114). Ventilator Associated pneumonia is a hospital acquired pneumonia, which is defined as parenchymal infection of the lungs occurring in people who are intubated and ventilated mechanically for over 48 hours (Davidson & Berry, 2010: p320). This condition is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, increased cost, and long length of stay in the hospital and the ICU. In view of these clinical costs and major adverse effects
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Strategies to Enhance Oral Hygiene of the Ventilated Adult Critically Ill Patient Name: Institution: STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE ORAL HYGIENE OF THE VENTILATED ADULT CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT Introduction For patients who are critically ill, particularly those requiring endo-tracheal intubation, they carry the greatest risk of all hospitalized patients in the acquisition of nosocomial pneumonia…
Strategies to enchance oral hygiene of the ventilated adult critically ill patient
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