This research paper discusses the topic of pediatric growth and development. The researcher focuses on stages of psychosocial theory of development, psychosexual development by Freud and stages of psychosexual development as well as cognitive development process…
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e conflict occurs as children try to act like grown ups and takes up goals or activities which are beyond their capacity and which are in conflict with parents or family members (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). Feeling of guilt occurs as a result and hence, achieving ‘balance’ between initiative and encroaching upon rights or privileges of others is the challenge as it leads to successful resolution of the conflict (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The fourth stage (‘industry versus inferiority’), in which teachers and peers are significant social agents, occur between 6 to 12 years of age (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). In this stage, children compare themselves with peers and hence, must master academic and social skills to feel self-assured (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). Otherwise, feeling of inferiority develops if they fail to acquire the skills which others have (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The fifth stage (‘identity versus role confusion’), in which the key social agent is the society of peers, occurs between 12 to 20 years of age (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The challenge for adolescents is to avoid being confused about their identity by establishing basic social and occupational identities (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The sixth stage (‘intimacy versus isolation’), in which the key social agents are lovers, spouses and close friends, occurs between 20 to 40 years (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The challenge is to achieve companionship through strong friendship or else loneliness result (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The seventh stage (‘generativity versus stagnation’), in which the key social agents are spouse, children and social norms, occurs between 40 to 65 years (Shaffer, 2009, p. 42). The challenge is to maintain ‘generativity’ by being productive or supporting young people, as failure or...
The main purpose of this research paper was to describe several development theories to the reader. Firstly, the researcher focuses on analysis of Psychosocial Development theory by Erickson, who understood that people can display healthy psychological adjustment only when they are able to resolve the psychological conflicts that they experience in life. In his theory, Erikson’s proposed eight stages (or psychosocial crisis) of developments, which occur during different ages of human life. Secondly, the researcher analyzed Freud's Psychosexual Development theory. Freud discovered that the mental disturbances that his patients experienced often revolved around the sexual conflicts which were repressed during their childhood. The researcher deeply decribes each of the five stages of this theory. Thirdly, the researcher analyzes Cognitive Development theory done by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist. Children’s way of perceiving and mentally representing the world is the focus of cognitive development theory. Four stages of this theory were discussed in the research paper. Fourth theory analyzed by the researcher and presented in the paper was Kohlberg’s Moral Development theory. The researcher describes that Kohlberg developed the theory that tried to encompass those ideas which were not addressed in Piaget’s theory. Kohlberg has explained the moral development in three levels, consisting of two stages each. The levels and the stages are described in the research paper as well.
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