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The present data point out that intensified AIDS awareness and preventive measures have played a significant role in reducing the number of AIDS deaths and new infections. This paper will evaluate the HIV drug treatment used in the past and the new drug treatments, and how these improvements have altered the role of nurses in health care settings. Past HIV Drug Treatment The first antiviral drug zidovudine (ZDV; AZT) for the prevention of HIV replication was approved by US Food and Drug Administration in 1986. Scientists argued that this drug would prevent HIV replication by restraining the activity of the reverse transcriptase enzyme. During the early 1990s, a new class of anti-HIV drugs called the non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors was invented. The development of a new class of antiviral drugs called protease inhibitors was the next step in the HIV drug invention. This class of drugs was entirely different from the reverse transcriptase inhibitors as its function was to prevent an already infected cell from producing more copies of HIV rather than to avert infection of a host cell. In mid 1980s, the nurses had a series of issues to resolve in the prevention and intervention of HIV primarily because of the unavailability of effective medicines and lack of HIV awareness. The dreadfulness and incurability of the disease had also mentally affected the infected individuals. Therefore, the nurses could not effectively deliver a quality care to individuals with HIV infection. During the period between 1986 and 1995, “monotherapy” was the most widely used standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected individuals and this treatment method was based on a single drug. In this period, it was scientifically proven that the AIDS symptoms were the result of a slow “war of attrition” between HIV and the host immune system but not the result of a sudden resurgence of a latent virus. According to the concept of multidrug resistance, if an organism has developed a resistance capacity to one drug, it can also be resistant to same class of all other drugs or to a number of various drugs. As per this perspective, the monotherapy became ineffective to AIDS because HIV could quickly develop resistance to such medications. In response to this situation, scientists expanded the number of distinct classes of antivirus medications and this practice led to a shift from monotherapy to combination therapy, in which drugs from two or more classes are applied simultaneously. The combination therapy produced dramatic effects in HIV treatment since the method was capable of suffocating mutated forms of HIV before they spread. The combinations of nucleoside analog drugs, the non-nucleoside analog drugs, and the protease inhibitors are referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART. This therapy was widely used by physicians because convincing evidences had come out; they proved that specific combinations of one protease inhibitor and other drugs can have remarkable effects including reduction in the amount of viruses in the blood, enhancement in the number of CD4+ cells, improved health, and minimized chances of new mutations that might lead to the development of drug-resistant strains of HIV. By the beginning of 1997, the combination the
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AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Introduction: AIDS was first recognized in the U.S. in 1981, the primary approach employed in identifying patients was through the identification of several opportunistic infections. Pneumosystis pneumonia is one the several opportunistic infections which provided a mean to identify AIDS patients.
Safe injecting sites are an approach to harm reduction in which people can go to a safe place to inject drugs and connect with a variety of services. "Safe injection" remains controversial, as people question whether this is the right approach to tackling the problem of drug use in communities.
Since the search for the cure is still ongoing, the only method that the health departments worldwide are employing is prevention and management of the disease. In Zimbabwe for instance, the fight against HIV and AIDS faces unique challenges because of culture, and the economic situation evident among the population.
The discovery of antiretroviral treatment has been a significant medical discovery in that it has made it possible to manage the disease. This is because the treatment boosts the immune system of an infected individual enabling them to fight of the effects of the disease.
In the early days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, fear was widespread and little was known about the disease. Later on, it became very well known, that this virus is passed from one person to another through body fluids such as blood, vaginal fluid, semen, other body fluids containing blood and, sexual contact.
The reasons for drug use and the reason that it continues to be illegal are many. However, as a control for the poor it is an exceptionally good tool in order to enforce incarceration at the discretion of judges and to target minorities for punishments that are unreasonable.
The present article is focused on reduction in risk of perinatally acquired HIV infection, based on the objective from healthy people 2010, the formulated policies and its implications along with the roles of nurse.
The primary cause of pediatric HIV infections is perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).
For the treatment of pain that is of moderate to severe intensity. The prescription is often made for pain that attends an operation or other medical procedures that cause pain. As an NSAID, it is not addictive, meaning that in opposition to
Participants will have to be mentally ill and those who are not mentally ill.HIV/AIDS epidemic is responsible for more than 25 million people (Fernandez 2006). It is not only detrimental to health but impairs economic and social development, causes food insecurity, infectious diseases among others.
This article will analyze this article step-by-step.
The research examined whether mental illnesses affects the proportion of HIV/AIDS tests. This study was a behavioral study on how people associate HIV/AIDS with the mentally ill. Participants will
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