Cardiomyopathy 1 The Disease Process of Cardiomyopathy In APA Style Name Cardiomyopathy 2 Introduction This paper discusses the nursing assessment and implications of cardiomyopathy. It also touches on the details and the different types of the disease and gives us a background of the differences of one from the other…
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It is included in the list of diseases that has the highest morbidity rate in the world’s aging population. The degree and the time course of the disease vary and do not coincide with the linear expression of symptoms. People suffering from such disease normally have asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction or both. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the state of the disease that is expressed when the balance between malfunction and compensation is disordered such that cardiac output can no longer be maintained at normal left ventricular filling pressures. (Giles & Sander, 1988, p 16) Types of Cardiomyopathy There are three types of cardiomyopathy; dilated, hypertrophic and unclassified cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common among the three types. In this type, the heart’s main pumping chamber – the left ventricle, coming from the term ‘dilated’, grows bigger than its normal size. The ability to pump blood throughout the body becomes less forceful, making the blood flow uneasily. (Giles & Sander, 1988, p 24) Although as mentioned above, Cardiomyopathy 3 cardiomyopathy can occur to people of any ages; this is most commonly seen in middle-aged people and is more often to occur in men. Some people who have this type of cardiomyopathy acquire the disease hereditary. The second type of cardiomyopathy is hypertrophic. This type of the disease entails the abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, affecting the main pumping chamber of the heart – the left ventricle. As the thickening occurs, it affects the blood circulation in the body due to the stiffening and the shrinking of the heart’s pumping chamber, which affects the ability of the heart to deliver blood to the entire body. Just like any other types of this disease, this may develop in any ages but it becomes more visible during childhood. (Giles & Sander, 1988, p 33) Normally, people who acquire this disease have a family history and more often than not, linked to some genetic mutations. Affected patients of this type of cardiomyopathy may be asymptomatic or may have signs of hindlimb paralysis or acute dyspnea. Examinations demonstrate abnormal heart sounds; from soft to prominent systolic cardiac murmurs and gallop heart sounds. The last type of cardiomyopathy is unclassified or better known as restrictive cardiomyopathy. The heart muscles of people who develop this type of disease become rigid and less elastic, which tends the heart to not expand properly to be able to contain blood between heartbeats. This is common in older people although it can develop in any ages just like the other types. This type is the least common among the three and can occur without known reason – idiopathic. (Giles & Sander, 1988, p 41) This can also be caused by other diseases that affect the heart. This type includes patients with visible abnormalities in the myocardium on echocardiography that do not fit into the other two types. This type of disease is also seen in cats. As mentioned above, Cardiomyopathy 4 restrictive cardiomyopathy have unknown causes. Nursing Intervention The disease is defined as ventricular dilation, systolic contractible dysfunction, low cardiac output and other congestive heart failure symptoms (crackles, edema, etc.) The decrease in the blood supply comes hand in hand with the decrease of amount of oxygen supply in the body. This can lead to kidney
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