Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative) - Term Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Metabolic syndrome Name Instructor Class 10 July 2011 Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome (MetS and once called as “syndrome X or insulin-resistance syndrome”) is illustrated by “central obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension” (O'Sullivan et al., 2010, p.770)…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.8% of users find it useful
Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative)
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative)"

Metabolic syndrome 10 July Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome (MetS and once called as “syndrome X or insulin-resistance syndrome”) is illustrated by “central obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension” (O'Sullivan et al., 2010, p.770). It is not clear up to now, nevertheless, if MetS has a single cause and what this cause may be (Das, 2010, p.5). Sources agree, however, that several risk factors can lead to MetS (Appel, Jones, & Kennedy-Malone, 2004; Das, 2010; O'Sullivan et al., 2010). This paper examines the associated pathophysiology and relative impacts of MetS. Associated Pathophysiology People affected with central obesity often have metabolic syndrome, which can also lead to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Appel et al., 2004, p.335). “Generalized obesity” means having a weight that is higher than the ideal weight and with the extra weight distrubuted all over the body (Das, 2010, p.5). Appel et al (2004) reviewed literature and used diagnostic criteria to study the common manifestations of this syndrome. Findings showed that generalized obesity that is part of metabolic syndrome can be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Appel et al., 2004, p.335). Some studies showed, however, that not only the obese are prone to developing metabolic syndrome. Reaven (1988) proposed the concept of metabolic clustering, where there is a pathophysiological concept that related insulin resistance to metabolic problems, even among non-overweight individuals with average glucose tolerance (Carroll, Borkoles, & Polman, 2007, p.125). Das (2010) noted that the risk factors of metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance, obese abdomen, lack of physical activity, aging, hormonal problems, and ethnic or genetic predisposition (p.5). In an original article, O'Sullivan et al. (2010) examined the relationship between “dietary glycaemic carbohydrate” and “insulin resistance” and how metabolic syndrome takes place using different criteria. Findings showed that participants with high glycaemic carbohydrate are more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Relative Impacts of the Disease Metabolic syndrome, with its associated pathophysiology, has diverse negative impacts on patients’ lifestyle, economic well-being, family roles, social roles, and employability. Metabolic syndrome also requires a specific client management approach. Changes/Constraint on Lifestyle. People afflicted with metabolic syndrome are also inflicted with obesity and circulatory problems. Obese people tend to have lower physical activities, while people with dyslipidaemia also have limited physical activities (Appel et al., 2004). Hypertension can damage the brain, heart, kidneys, and arteries, thereby curtailing the range of activities of afflicted individuals (Bouchard & Katzmarzyk, 2010). They tend to have more sedentary lifestyles, even when they are encouraged to be more active and to exercise. Overworking is not advised, because of risks of cardiovascular diseases. Economic Effects. There is overwhelming evidence on the economic impacts of central obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension on patients and private and public agencies alike (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). In 2000, it was estimated that around 47 million Americans have metabolic syndrome (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). Disability and lower productivity can reach $100 billion a year (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). Health care costs can also be staggering, especially with recurrent hospitalization. Surgeries needed to help ease metabolic syndrome, such as bariatic surgery, also have financial impacts. Changes in Family/Social Role/Employability. People with metabolic syndrome tend to have lower employability, especially when they are afflicted with central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. With these diseases, they are considered high risk by employers, who may discriminate against them. These patients also often suffer loss of productivity, due to absences and hospital leaves (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). Metabolic syndrome can also affect the family, when health problems affect the financial and health welfare of the family (Nash, 2010, p.147). Some patients suffer from loss of income or lower income, which can change their status from breadwinner to being dependents of their wives or children. For instance, a sick family breadwinner can have negative impacts on the financial welfare of the family. Client Management of Disease. For people with metabolic syndrome, secondary prevention for potential complications should be applied (Nash, 2010, p.148). Primary risk factors should be treated using pharmacological and other means (Nash, 2010, p.149). Pharmacotherapy can include statins for dyslipidaemia and hypertension (Nash, 2010, p.149). Lifestyle changes are also recommended, such as regular exercise and lower intake of calories, sweets, salty foods, and saturated fats (Nash, 2010, p.149). Carroll et al. (2007) examined the short-term impacts of a “non-dieting lifestyle intervention program” on weight and the well-being of obese women with metabolic syndrome. Findings showed that this therapy enhanced their cardiorespiratory fitness and psychological well-being (Carroll et al., 2007). Metabolic risk also decreased after 3 months (Carroll et al., 2007). Weight management programs can be used to reduce weight and waist circumferences (Nash, 2010, p.149). Clients should also increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables (Nash, 2010, p.149). References Appel, S.J., Jones, E.D., & Kennedy-Malone, L. (2004). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome: implications for primary care providers. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 16 (8), 335-342. Bouchard, C. & Katzmarzyk, P. (2010). Physical activity and obesity (2nd ed.). Illinois: Human Kinetics. Carroll, S., Borkoles, E., & Polman, R. (2007). Short-term effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on weight management, fitness, metabolic risk, and psychological well-being in obese premenopausal females with the metabolic syndrome. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 32 (1), 125-142. Das, U.N. (2010). Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: The role of essential fatty acids. Iowa: Blackwell Publishing. Higa, K. & Boone, K. (2007). Laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Complications. In P. R. Schauer, B.D. Schirmer, & S. A. Brethauer, Minimally Invasive Bariatric Surgery (pp. 291-299). Ohio: Springer Science. Nash, M. (2010). Physical health and well-being in mental health nursing. New York: Open University Press. O'Sullivan, T. A., Lyons-Wall, P., Bremner, A. P., Ambrosini, G. L., Huang, R. C., Beilin, L. J., Mori, T. A., Blair, E., & Oddy, W. H. (2010). Dietary glycaemic carbohydrate in relation to the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: comparison of different metabolic syndrome definitions. Diabetic Medicine, 27 (7), 770-778. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative) Term Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Metabolic Syndrome and Its Implications ( Tentative) Term Paper)
“Metabolic Syndrome and Its Implications ( Tentative) Term Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative)

Freedom Summer of 1964 and Its Relationship with the Civil Rights Movement

The other organizations which participated in this Registration campaign were the Council of Federated Organization (COFO) in league with the National Association for Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Confederation (SCLC) and the Students Non-Violent Coordination Committee (SNCC). During this campaign, large groups of African American people, supported by around 1000 white volunteers, braved the rains in order to enter the Forrest Country Courthouse to register their Voting Rights. Around 30 Summer schools were also established during this Freedom Summer Campaign in various parts of Mississippi town in order to educate the black minorities, since, due t...
11 Pages (2750 words) Case Study

Cognitive Psychology And Its Implications

Cognitive psychology attempts to understand the nature of human intelligence and how people think. The study of cognitive psychology is motivated by scientific curiosity, by the desire for practical applications, and by the need to provide a foundation for other fields of social science. (Anderson, 1990:3) Looking into the history of the world at large, it becomes evident that almost all human societies have been socially stratified from the most primitive Paleolithic and Neolithic ages to the most modern contemporary era of hi-technology and computerization. The social division of individuals is on the basis of caste, class, creed, clan, community, region, race, religion, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic statu...
10 Pages (2500 words) Case Study

The Implications of International M&A

When an international merger or acquisition occurs when the company’s productivity improves through learning from partner firms or obtaining benefits from partners’ complementary assets. On the other hand, international M&A requires companies to restructure so that there could be overheads of coordinating corporate culture and the working environment.
In addition, even if there are no profits from international M&A, corporate managers might have a motivation to get hold of other companies if they have ambitions like “empire building” (Jensen (1986)). In these cases, a productivity loss may be found. Theoretically, it is difficult to determine whether productivity profits from international M&am...
11 Pages (2750 words) Assignment

The Work Breakdown Structure and its Advantages in Project Planning

A typical construction project involves a WBS that evolves from an initial task that is successively subdivided into smaller work blocks until the lowest level is reached, indicating a tree-like structure. Subdividing the project breaks down the project work effort into packages that are both manageable and independent. It connotes that the lowest level of the package corresponds to the smallest project work, which requires the shortest completion time periods. As WBS shows the relationship of all elements of a project, a sound basis for cost and schedule control is provided.

Some lists of project activities involved in WBS include budgeting, cost allocation, time allocation and management, and quality assurance. These...
11 Pages (2750 words) Report

Liberalism and Its Aspects

After listing out the shades of liberalist thinking, the main point of this paper is that for the times that we live in, Liberalism is best suited as an alternative to the prevailing ideologies of the time. The world took a dangerous turn in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks on the US. The resulting “War on Terror” that followed took a toll on individual liberties and it appears to be that liberal values and liberalism have been buried in the rancor that characterized the last eight years. The very nature of the individual and his or her role in the nation-state has been tested and the notion of liberties questioned. However, there seems to be a tendency towards reclaiming the premises of liberalism namely that of indi...
12 Pages (3000 words) Coursework

Its a Wonderful Life and The Third Man: Messages in Film

The film It’s a Wonderful Life is 1946, World War II, a film by director Frank Capra, starring a beloved American actor, Jimmy Stewart. The film is intended to inspire hope, which might have been sorely lacking in World War II America. The themes of hope, faith, and goodwill are prevalent. Faith is prominent, in that, an angel is sent to guide an earthly human, George Bailey, in his life during a time when the world around him seems to be falling apart. The film begins by establishing the fact that a heavenly hand is needed in the life of the main character, George Bailey (Gehring, Wes, 1988, 135). The segue then is to the young George Bailey, so that the angel, and the audience, can understand who George Bailey is as an adu...
11 Pages (2750 words) Movie Review

The Nature of God and Its Relation to Mission

It is God's agent in history, through whom He works by historical processes. Men learn of God and respond to Him in the context of their whole lives as personal, social beings because of the activity of the Christian community. Thesis Mission theology occupies a central role in religious teaching and supported by the main dogmas and principles of theology.

The main texts Genesis 12, Exodus 9 and 19, Numbers 14, several parts in Deuteronomy, Joshua, 1 Samuel, 1 King, 1 Chronicle, Psalm, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Micah, Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. Jonah's story is considered a missionary book of the Old Testament1. Christians have so understood their role. Jesus' understanding of his role...
8 Pages (2000 words) Case Study

Implications for Personal Investment

The assumption of perfect rationality can be rebutted by the fact that rationality is not the sole driver of human behaviour. On the contrary, our behaviour is contingent upon emotions such as love, fear, pain, and pleasure etc. Human beings only use their intellectual power to achieve or avoid these emotional outcomes (Pompian 2006). Secondly, the assumption of self-interested is also not deemed to be practical because many sociological studies have shown that people are not always self-interested. Had this been the case, then there would not have been a single philanthropist in the world, even people would have avoided negative behaviour such as suicide and alcoholism. The final assumption of perfect information also does not ho...
6 Pages (1500 words) Coursework

Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and Its Capacity for Addressing the Needs of the Hospitality Industry

...Independent Research Study An investigation into the Structure of the Educational System in Morocco and its Capa for Addressing the Needs and Expectations of the Hospitality Industry in the Country Submitted by : Submitted to : Course : Date : September 29, 2009 Word Count : 3,069 words STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP “I confirm that no part of this work, except where clearly quoted and referenced, has been copied from material belonging to any person e.g. from a book, handout, another student. I am aware that it is a breach of GIHE regulations to copy the work of another without clear acknowledgement and that attempting to do so render me liable to disciplinary procedures.” ________________ Table of Contents I. Consultant’s Brief 4...
15 Pages (3750 words) Research Proposal

The Implications of Racism

The situation was so bad that people imported brides from their country just to avoid coupling the local people (Goldberg, 53). This is not a unique case. Though it is not documented, the social structure limits interactions between people from different races. For example, people still prefer to marry form their race. There are suggestions that the phenomenon is an aspect of culture and it is subconscious. Nevertheless, it contributes to creating disparities in society.
For example, France is one of the biggest settlements for Blacks and Jews in Europe (Goldberg, 76). These people settled there due to historical foreign policies adopted. For example, when France was a colonial power, she adopted the policy of assimilation. T...
7 Pages (1750 words) Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Term Paper on topic Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative) for FREE!

Contact Us