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Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative) - Term Paper Example

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Metabolic Syndrome and its implications ( tentative)

This paper examines the associated pathophysiology and relative impacts of MetS. Associated Pathophysiology People affected with central obesity often have metabolic syndrome, which can also lead to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Appel et al., 2004, p.335). “Generalized obesity” means having a weight that is higher than the ideal weight and with the extra weight distrubuted all over the body (Das, 2010, p.5). Appel et al (2004) reviewed literature and used diagnostic criteria to study the common manifestations of this syndrome. Findings showed that generalized obesity that is part of metabolic syndrome can be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Appel et al., 2004, p.335). Some studies showed, however, that not only the obese are prone to developing metabolic syndrome. Reaven (1988) proposed the concept of metabolic clustering, where there is a pathophysiological concept that related insulin resistance to metabolic problems, even among non-overweight individuals with average glucose tolerance (Carroll, Borkoles, & Polman, 2007, p.125). Das (2010) noted that the risk factors of metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance, obese abdomen, lack of physical activity, aging, hormonal problems, and ethnic or genetic predisposition (p.5). In an original article, O'Sullivan et al. (2010) examined the relationship between “dietary glycaemic carbohydrate” and “insulin resistance” and how metabolic syndrome takes place using different criteria. Findings

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showed that participants with high glycaemic carbohydrate are more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Relative Impacts of the Disease Metabolic syndrome, with its associated pathophysiology, has diverse negative impacts on patients’ lifestyle, economic well-being, family roles, social roles, and employability. Metabolic syndrome also requires a specific client management approach. Changes/Constraint on Lifestyle. People afflicted with metabolic syndrome are also inflicted with obesity and circulatory problems. Obese people tend to have lower physical activities, while people with dyslipidaemia also have limited physical activities (Appel et al., 2004). Hypertension can damage the brain, heart, kidneys, and arteries, thereby curtailing the range of activities of afflicted individuals (Bouchard & Katzmarzyk, 2010). They tend to have more sedentary lifestyles, even when they are encouraged to be more active and to exercise. Overworking is not advised, because of risks of cardiovascular diseases. Economic Effects. There is overwhelming evidence on the economic impacts of central obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension on patients and private and public agencies alike (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). In 2000, it was estimated that around 47 million Americans have metabolic syndrome (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). Disability and lower productivity can reach $100 billion a year (Higa & Boone, 2007, p.291). Health care costs can also be staggering, especially with recurrent hospitalization. Surgeries needed to help ease metabolic syndrome, such as bariatic surgery, also have financial impacts. Changes in Family/Social Role/Employability. People with metabolic syndrome tend to have lower employability, especially when they are afflicted with central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. With these diseases, they are considered high risk by employers, who may discriminate against them. These patients also often suffer loss of productivity, due to absences and

Summary

Metabolic syndrome Name Instructor Class 10 July 2011 Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome (MetS and once called as “syndrome X or insulin-resistance syndrome”) is illustrated by “central obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension” (O'Sullivan et al., 2010, p.770)…
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