Interventions in the Treatment of Autism Introduction Autism is defined as a developmental disorder which adversely affects verbal and nonverbal communication, causing a detrimental influence on social interaction, on educational performance, and in relating to other people…
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Autism is not one specific condition, but refers to a group of disorders with disparate underlying etiologies (Corbier, 2005). Hence, treatment for autism is multidimensional, including behavioral management, individualized education plan, medical treatment, psychoanalytic therapy, and rehabilitative therapeutic strategies, together with patience, faith and belief. Integrated treatment plans focus on preparing people with autism to live in their home community in the least restrictive environment (Hardman et al, 2007). Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current treatments for children with autism, and determine their effectiveness. Behavioral Management as a Treatment Intervention in Autism Behavioral interventions aim to improve specific appropriate behaviors, or to lessen inappropriate behavior (Hardman et al, 2007). This approach is commonly considered to be the most effective in treating autism in children. A research study was conducted by Sallows and Graupner (2005) on twenty-four children with autism, aged between 24 to 42 months at the beginning of the study. They were randomly assigned to early intensive behavioral treatment, and to treatment involving intensive hours but less supervision by equally qualified supervisors. The results were similar for both groups, after four years of multidimensional treatment including cognitive, language, adaptive, social and academic measures. This indicates that supervision by trained staff is not an essential criterion for improved behavioral outcomes, when the same intensive treatment is given to both the study sample and the control group. By combining the two groups, it was found that the results were optimized, and by age seven the children could adapt themselves to mainstream classrooms. However, pretreatment skills played a significant part in determining the success of the interventions, particularly verbal imitation ability, language and social responsiveness. Lovaas (1993) discovered that early identification of the environmental variables that controlled the extent of treatment gains, was essential. Effective treatment for severe behavioral disorders requires early intervention which is conducted throughout the child’s waking hours, while taking all significant behaviors in all the child’s environments into consideration, by all significant persons caring for the child, and for many years. Research on early intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism was conducted by Cohen et al (2006) in the community setting, to replicate earlier studies which had shown favorable results. The three-year prospective outcome study using a quasi-experimental design consisted of the sample group of 21 children which received early intensive behavioral therapy (EIBT) from a community agency, and the other control group of 21 children who of equal age and IQ as compared to the first group, and belonging to special education classes at local public schools. The results showed marked improvement in language, nonverbal skill, and adaptive behavior; hence early intensive behavioral therapy can be successfully undertaken in the community setting. Individualized Education Plan and Educational Interventions “Early intervention and a highly structured education program are currently regarded as the best treatment for chi
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(“Autism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
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(Autism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Autism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1425244-autism.
It is known to have a severe impact on the patient’s communication abilities; the ability to establish social relationships; and to react in an appropriate manner to their surroundings. The patients of Autism fall within a wide spectrum of disabilities – i.e.
In The Essential Difference, Simon Baron-Cohen defines autism as “an imbalance between two kinds of intelligence; the kind used to understand people (‘empathizing’), and the kind used to understand things (‘systemizing’)”
This developmental disorder is common, affecting two out of every 1000 children worldwide. Autism is more common in the male gender, as compared to the female, having every five boys suffer from the disorder, for every one girl affected (Fombonne, 15). The signs and symptoms that an individual is suffering from this disorder normally portrays and becomes apparent, before a child attains the age of three years.
But most researchers support the role that parents play in dealing with autistic children as teachers, proponents of appropriate intervention, in the administration of their needs and in research on autism. Even so, there are scholars who have argued on the ethical implication of using children in research and others who argue on therapists as better suited in handling autistic children other than their parents.
In the clinical practice, the word autism spectrum disorder abbreviated as ASD and it is always used jointly to refer to autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Communication uniqueness that is the diagnostic of autism is recapitulated, with deliberation of the overlap amid social and communication problem, predominantly for children with autism performance at the prelinguistic stage.
The condition includes autistic disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger syndrome, and Rett syndrome. However, after the publication of DSM-5 diagnostic manual, all the autistic conditions are now merged to ASD diagnosis.
Understanding the etiology of autism will help to relieve the blame that parents may feel. The diagnosis was also complicated by the fact that although parents may see signs of autistic behavior during the first year of the child’s life, the diagnosis is usually not made until the child is 30 months.
Research indicates that some children experience complete mental disability while others don’t. Autism spectrum disorders are also known as pervasive developmental disorders and include following diseases (A Parents Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2011):
Out of the
The article under consideration is titled “Self-Management Interventions for Students With Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research.” It was written by Monica Carr, Dennis Moore, and Angelika Anderson. The given article presents a qualitative review of studies that focused on the issue of self-management interventions.
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