Considered as the universal language, man has always turned to music for relaxation and comfort. Because of its simplicity, comprehension, universal impact, dynamicity and non-invasiveness, the therapeutic procedure is as effective for children and adolescents as adults…
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A general definition of music therapy encompassing its therapeutic use as well as target was provided by Wigram (2000, p. 29):
Music therapy is the use of music in clinical, educational and social situations to treat clients or patients with medical, educational, social or psychological needs.
Music therapy has been formally defined to include three aspects of therapy; music, interpersonal relationship between the patient and the therapist, and finally the health outcomes of the use of music as a therapeutic procedure. Thus music therapy can be defined as “the prescribed use (by a qualified music therapist) of music, and the relationship that develops through shared musical experiences to assist or motivate a person to achieve non-musical goals” (Brunk, 2004, p. 7).
Munro and Mount (1978, p. 1029) have defined music therapy as “controlled use of music and its influence on the human being to aid in physiological, psychological and emotional integration during treatment of an illness or disability”
Aspects of music therapy
The three critical aspects determining the efficacy of music therapy include the type of music, the nature of relationship between the therapist and the client, and finally the health outcome of the therapy (Brunk, 2004, p. 11).
Once trust has been established the therapist can use music to present share difficult experiences and tasks can be designed accordingly. The client then explores and establishes relationship through music. C. Achieving Goals Improvement in communication and language skills, communication skills and emotional modulation are the targeted goals that are to be achieved by music therapy. History History provides abundant evidences along with myths and lore for the use of music as a therapeutic tool (Gouk, 2000, p. 5). However research connecting modern scientific basis of modern therapeutic uses of music with the traditionally practiced music therapy are insufficient. Medical science in its early days of development, i.e. since the time of Hippocrates, was skeptical about the principle and practice of music therapy. Music is definitely not a part of the two prominent British works covering the history of medicine and psychiatry (Horden, 2000, p. 28). Healing powers of music are described in De Institutione Musica (circa AD 600) a book which has been quoted repeatedly in medial music literature. According to this the music-medicine link is based on four basic assumptions (Gouk, 2000, 85; Horden, 2000, p. 26): The harmonic vibrations of music have been interpreted as microcosmic reflections of vibrations and as proportions present in macrocosmos in the (Neo)Platonic Theory. The medical theory based on the interbalance of the four bodily fluids or humours considers the origin of disease as a consequence of the disturbance of this balance. Musical vibrations have the power to bring about the balance of the humours. The ethos doctrine is based on the premises
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INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a congenital condition occurring in children more frequently than diabetes, spina bifida, or Down syndrome. The defining characteristics of ASD include 1) labored social interaction, 2) impaired use of words and gestures in communication, and 3) inconsistent patterns of behavior interests, and activities.
For the past few decades, its use has been on rise but at the same time, its opponents have also voiced their concerns loudly. Even the most reputable medical organizations have not been able to reach a consensus regarding its use. This paper would briefly explore the debate regarding Electroconvulsive Therapy and the major arguments presented by both the sides.
The five classifications of autism include autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder (Volkmar, 2012). ASD, a developmental disorder, affects millions of children in all parts of the world, with the condition noticeable at the age of three years, where there are noticeable signs in the area of interacting socially, impaired and late speech development and slow learning ability.
The characteristic features of the disorder are impairments especially in the social interactions, verbal communication skills as well as general interests in some activities. This could be dangerous especially when not recognized at the early stages as a child may develop adverse complications especially when it is already too late.
Though severity and symptoms vary, in all sorts of autism spectrum disorders, a child’s ability to interact and communicate with others is affected. There is an increasing trend in the autistic children. However, it is not apparent that either it is due to improved reporting and detection of autism or a genuine increase in the cases or both.
The author states that the condition is a great manifestation of the brain’s inability to develop effectively thereby quantifying the condition as mental. The condition thus affects the development of patients a feature that complicates both its determination in a patient and the successive treatment.
Further recommendations require the clinician to maintain an active role in long term treatment planning and family support as well as support of the individual and clinicians specifically making enquiries about the use of alternative/complementary treatments, and be prepared to discuss their risk and potential benefits.
Sensory integration (SI) is a specialty field of occupational treatment that is based on more than forty years of theory and research. The expression sensory integration refers to: The manner the brain systematizes sensations for involvement in occupation (Bundy, Lane & Murray, 2002); A hypothesis founded on neuroscience that gives perspective for understanding the sensory scopes of human conduct; A model for appreciating the means in which sensation influences development; Assessments comprising standardized assessments, organized observation, and teacher or parent interviews that recognize patterns of SI dysfunction; Intervention approaches that improves information processing, praxis, and
This disability also affects how an individual agrees with ideas and behaviours of other people. It also affects how such people make sense of the deeds of other people surrounding them (Baron-Cohen, 2008). Autism is a spectrum condition meaning that although individuals with autism share certain challenges, their conditions affect them differently.
Research indicates that some children experience complete mental disability while others don’t. Autism spectrum disorders are also known as pervasive developmental disorders and include following diseases (A Parents Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2011):
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