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Vitamin B12 - Research Paper Example

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The organic food constitutes fats, carbohydrates, and proteins while the inorganic component constitutes vitamins and minerals .Vitamins are an essential part of human body and play important role in…
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Vitamin B12
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Vitamin B12 The food we take in our daily life is either organic or inorganic in nature. The organic food constitutes fats, carbohydrates, and proteins while the inorganic component constitutes vitamins and minerals .Vitamins are an essential part of human body and play important role in the proper functioning of various components of the body. Vitamins are further divided into water soluble and fat soluble. The B family of Vitamins constitutes the water soluble part; the B family itself is a large one and contains vitamins like B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12.
Vitamin B12 is also known as coblamin, and the human body has large reserves of this type of vitamin inside it .The absorption of this vitamin is made possible through distil ileum; however the absorption depends on several factors, one of them is stomach, while the other is R binding factor. It is the only existent metabolite that contains cobalt. They are responsible for proper growth since they are cofactors in number of enzymes.
Importance of Vitamin B12:
Vitamin B12 helps in maturation of Deoxyribonucleic acid and is responsible for the proper working of both white blood cells and red blood cells. Mostly found in animal products, and are synthesized only by micro organisms. Very human body contains large reserve pool. It is primarily stored in the liver. It helps avoiding the heart diseases to large extent by keeping the blood level of amino acid homocysteine low. In elder age it helps preventing many diseases and problems (John.N.Hathcock, 2004).
Available in:
Vitamin B12 is found richly in meat, fish, cereals, eggs and other dairy foods. Coblamin is the largest and most complex vitamin. They are mostly manufactured by bacteria and found naturally in animal products, however, synthetic forms are widely available and added to many foods .They can be consumed in large doses because excess is excreted by the body or stored in the liver for use when supplies are scarce. Stores of B-12 can last for up to a year.
Below is a list of the top vitamin b12 rich food
 Clams, Oysters, and Mussels
Shellfish are a great source of vitamin B12 and can be eaten raw, baked, steamed, fried. Shell fish also has large quantities of zinc, copper and iron.
Liver
Liver can also be prepared steamed or fried with onions and herbs. The liver of most animals is packed with vitamin B-12, the highest on the list are: Lamb, beef, duck, and goose respectively.
 Fish
 High protein food, fish are also a good source of vitamin B12.
 Crab and Lobster
 Octopus
Octopus is a vitamin b12 rich food.
 Cheese
EGGS
When it comes to chicken eggs the raw yellow has most of the vitamin B-12
Deficiency:
Vitamin B12, along with vitamin B works to make our body’s building block D.N.A. Deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause many problems: in some cases the problems can lead to include anemia, while in others it can result in neural problems. It is essential for protecting the nerve cells from damage. Its deficiency is caused by mal absorption.
Side effects of excessive Vitamin B-12:
Usage of vitamin b-12 in proper amount is very important, it can have serious negative repercussions incase it is taken excessively, it can have a negative impact on the nervous system, respiratory system, can result in hyperactivity. The following can result from the side effects of vitamin B-12
It can have Hematologic side effects which results in the polycythemia vera. Respiratory system side effects include rhinitis. Negative impact on the nervous system can result in headache and paresthesia. Other side effects include back ache, swelling of various parts of body, hypersensitivity, infection, and generalized pain.
Impact of other medicines on Vitamin B-12:
Certain drugs are believed to reduce the absorption of vitamin B-12.proton pump inhibitors that are used for during a therapy of Z.E syndrome are believed to reduce the secretion of stomach acid which is necessary for vitamin B-12.Their use for longer period is believed to imbalance the vitamin B-12 equation in the body. Other gastric acid inhibitors, that are used for treating the ulcer are believed to reduce the impact of vitamin B-12.Nitrous oxide that are often used for anesthesia are often reported to creating deficiency of vitamin B-12.Excessive amount of folic acid are also believed to have negative impact on the balance of vitamin B-12 in the body.
Psychiatric impact:
Memory impairment, depression and dementia
Cardiovascular impact:
Possible increase in chances of stroke.
They are totally safe, and till date no toxic impact of vitamin B12 is reported, though keeping the balance in amount of intake is essential .up to 1000 ug of injection has been termed as safe for intake.
Its deficiency can result in serious problems that includes anemia in prime which directly affects blood in the body and nerves .the results of anemia include lack of red blood cells that are vital for the oxygen inside the body(Robet C.OH, 2003).
Average required intake of vitamin B-12:
Life stage
Vitamin B12(Ug/day)
Men, above 19
Women, above 19
During pregnancy
Breastfeeding
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.8
Food
Vitamin B12(ug/serving)
Oysters,cooked,3oz
Beef, ground, extra lean,3oz
Tuna,canned,2oz
Chicken,roasted,3oz
30
1.8
1.6
0.3
Reference: (Bobroff, 2008)
Screening method:
The deficiency can be determined through measurement of serum vitamin levels .a more detailed and slightly sensitive method of detecting vitamin B12 is the measurement of serum methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels .Increase in the level of the mentioned can give idea about the deficiency of vitamin B12.Use of Schilling test detection is also part of screening method which helps providing information about blood level.
Conclusion:
Vitamin B12 is an important constituent of the human body, and ensures the smooth working of the body in many aspects, its deficiency can have severe impact on the proper working of body, and it ensures a healthy and stable nervous system. This vitamin can be found in large variety of foods. Imbalance in the diet in terms of the vitamin deficiency can damage the human body directly, this vitamin can be termed as the power house to the proper working of human body, and hence its importance cannot be ignored .

Bibliography:
John.N.Hathcock. (2004). From Vitamin and Mineral Safety 2nd Edition. Council for Responsible Nutrition (C.R.N).
Robet C.OH, D. L. (2003, March 1). Vitamin B12 Deficiency. American Family Physician.
Bobroff, L. B. (2008, January). Facts about Vitamin B12. Retrieved from University of Florida IFAS extension: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FY/FY21400.pdf Accessed on 14th March 2012.
Additional References;
Bernhard Krutler, B.T.(2008) . Vitamin B12 and B12-proteins Read More
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