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Sigmund Freud’s discourse traces a connection between civilization and religion as an illusion. As such, at the beginning of the book he raised a critique on civilization by claiming that civilization does not intend to effect the just distribution of wealth extracted from nature but that it intends to perpetuate the current distribution of wealth and the status of human interrelationship (Freud, 1989:4-5). In this context, Freud raises the concept that although civilization is plagued with problems because it seeks to curtail the satisfaction of human instinct, it is useful for humanity to create a communal relationship because it lessens the uncertainty, cruelty and control of Nature and Fate over human life. As such, it can be impugned that human civilization is a tool whose “principal task …, its actual raison dêtre, is to defend us against nature” (Freud, 1989:14). In this framework, the humanization of nature and fate is undertaken and is deemed instrumental in removing the people’s fear of nature and rob nature of its capacity to destroy and annihilate humanity. Thus, this process pave for the reenactment of one’s self as “a small child, in relation to ones parents. One had reason to fear them, and especially ones father; and yet one was sure of his protection against the dangers one knew” (Freud, 1989:16). Within this paradigm, man utilizes the gods with a threefold tasks: “they must exorcize the terrors of nature, they must reconcile men to the cruelly of Fate, particularly as it is shown in death, and they must compensate them for the sufferings and privations which a civilized life in common has imposed on them”(Freud, 1989:17). Being such, man’s continued helplessness is assuaged by the protection given to them by the gods. Moreover, since the medieval period, man’s relation with the gods has been transformed in the reenactment of the loving relationship between the son and the father.
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It is difficult to attach divinity or sacredness to church if we take the above definitions seriously. In my opinion, church is a building and a group of Christian people. But above all it is a place where the presence of God exists. “The church is the body of Christ, of which He is the head” (What is the Church).
While infant baptism is practiced by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, among others, it is actually denied by major Protestant denominations such as the Baptists, the Churches of Christ, Pentecostals and the Seventh Day Adventists, with the latter preferring adult baptism.
In light of the descriptions of Essenes by Josephus and Philo as described in the Damascus document, the Dead Sea document and the Rule of the community, someone might have been interested in being part of these separatist societies for a number of reasons.
The German theologian, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906 – 1945) wrote Life Together while teaching at an underground seminary. The book was first published in 1939 by the Christian Kaiser Verlag, in the German language. That Bonhoeffer had intended to entrench love and harmonious living, is a matter that is underscored by the book, since it was written against the backdrop of the Interwar period, a time when suspicion and hatred had soared to deplorable levels.
Three practical steps Christians can take to help the church to reflect Christ better within their community/culture are: to spend more quality time in prayer and Bible Study, to practice what they preach, and to avoid quarreling and backbiting among the members of the church.
One such translation is "what people pray, they believe" (Pepinster, 2004). The Classicists insist it should be "the law of belief is the law of prayer" (Toon 1992). Another is"so we believe, so we pray" (Ditchingham Report 1994). But personally for me, the most cogent translation is "the Church prays as the Church believes" (McNichol 2007).
Such will entail the use of a focus group, face-to-face interviews, observation and surveys (Shouhong and Wang 548). Interview questions will be formulated so that they will elicit response from the respondents (Venable and Richard 142). The
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