Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Bone Remodeling - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
There is a considerable increase in research in bone biology during the last to decades and thus have lead in increasing our approach and understanding towards the bone remodeling. Bone is a dynamic tissue that constantly undergoes remodeling even after the growth and modeling the whole skeleton is complete…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.7% of users find it useful
Bone Remodeling
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Bone Remodeling"

Download file to see previous pages Bone remodeling is a process of a lifetime in which the old bone is removed by the osteoclasts and replaced by osteoblasts.(9) Parafitt AM., 2002 described the cellular basis of the normal bone remodeling sequence in the human adult to a cycle that constitutes three stages, quiescence, activation, resorption, reversal, formation, and return to quiescence (1). The major reasons of remodeling is to enable the bones to respond and adapt to mechanical stress as occurs as a result of physical exercise and during the mechanical lading as occurs during orthodontic tooth movement. This article outlines the major research carried out in the past decade in the cellular basis of bone remodeling. The aspects included are the relationship between the hormone and localized factors that affect the phenomenon. The dependence of the localized factors and the proteins during the bone resorption is critically discussed. The understanding provided by the RANK/RANKL/OPG paradigm for both the differentiation and their activation of the osteoclast is also discussed.
Bone undergoes constant bone remodeling and it is a very complex process. In his review article Hill PA., 1998 described four stages involved in bone remodeling, namely, resorptive phase reversal phase, formative phase and resting phase. In the resorptive phase, the activated multinucleated osteoclast derived from bone marrow resorbs a discrete area of mineralized bone matrix. The latter stage than follows in which the osteoblast precursor cells, which can locally proliferate and differentiate into osteoblast migrate into the resorption lacuna and disclose the former osteoclastic activity. The osteoblast deposits new bone matrix which is initially unmineralized and called osteroid and in this way fills the resorption lacuna. This phase is the formative phase. Finally the resting phase is followed. Once embedded in the osteroid, the osteoblast matures into terminally differentiated osteocytes. The osteoblast lying on the surface on the surface of the newly formed bone packet are quiescent lining cells activated.(11) Osteoclast and osteoblast lay the basis of bone remodeling and significant research is been carried out in the past decade. It is known that both osteoblasts and osteoclasts function under the regulation of many factors(3, 7), systemic and local among which insulin, insulin-like growth factors-I, bone-morphogenetic factors and Wnt protins are the potent bone anabolic factors(13). Recently, it was reported that phosphoinosidine-dependent serine-threonine protein kinase Akt plays a major role in signaling of the potent bone anabolic factors. Akt1, a major Akt in osteoclast and osteoblast has a novel role. Akt1 phosphorylates the transcription factor FoxO3a to restrict its nuclear localization, thus suspending the transactivation of its target gene Bim which is also known to be a potent proapoptotic molecule in osteoblasts. This research established that Akt1 plays a crucial regulator of osteoclast and osteoblast by promoting the differentiation and survival to maintain bone marrow and turnover.(8)
Bone resporption is mainly dependent on a cytokine RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand), which is a TNF (tumor necrosis factor), that is vital for the osteoclast formation, activity and survival ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Bone Remodeling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Bone Remodeling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words)
“Bone Remodeling Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Mathematical model of bone remodeling

...? MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BONE REMODELLING al affiliation 17th March Introduction For many years,bones have been known as complicated tissues which can be repaired and reconstructed in people’s lives continuously. In the last years, people have made it very clear that bone reconstruction relies on the relationship between two uncommon cells which are osteoclasts and osteoblasts at the cellular level. The osteoclasts refer to a variety of nuclear cells with hematopoietic origin. The second are mononuclear cells. The bone reconstruction process is made of two processes; the new bone’s formation and the old bone’s re-sorption. In the humans’ body, some auto-crine and paracrine parameters ruled the bone reconstruction process for the bone’s good...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Bone Marrow Transplant & Donation

...?Bone Marrow Transplantation and Donation The of Your Paper Bone Marrow Transplantation and Donation Social Security Number: Course Name, Number, and Section Number: Name of Instructor: Bone Marrow Transplantation and Donation Bone marrow transplantation has been described as a heroic management of some devastating diseases like leukemia, lymphomas and aplastic anemia (Scales, 2008). With years of research and improvement in procedure, this surgery has more hurdles to cross as significant morbidity has been associated with it still. Intensive care is needed by about 40% of patients. The complications requiring ICU care are respiratory or hepatic or neurological problems (Scales, 2008). ICU stay would usually be hectic with frequent...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Bare Bone Analysis

...? Bare Bone Case Analysis Bare Bone Analysis Learning Objectives Enhance patient awareness and offer continuous risk assessment and progression of individualized patient management plan. Recognizing epidemiologic, social, financial and medical outcome of the patient. Understanding nursing role and procedure of abnormal labor plus delivery. Pathophysiology The major pathophysiology situation for Patience preterm labor is the shattering of membranes and weakened cervix, due to considerable build up of pressure on cervix. This is augmented by the partial dilatation which results in a sufficient opening to permit the fetus to descend into the pelvic canal. Furthermore, the patient undergoes premature progression and formation of myometrial...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Long Bone

... layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity as well as the canal system of the compact bone. It is composed mainly of reticular cells and fibers, together with fine blood vessels and osteoblasts, responsible for the constant remodeling and growth of bones. (Young, 2000) Works Cited 1. Nutrient Foramen. Online Medical Dictionary. 5 Mar. 2000. The Center for Cancer Education. University of Newcastle. 3 Mar. 2008. 2. Young, Barbara, and John W. Heath. Wheater's Functional Histology. Sydney: Churchill Livingstone, 2000....
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Kitchen Remodeling Risk Management

...Kitchen Remodeling Risk Management Summary of the process Project assumptions will include the projected costs and value of a common kitchen remodeling plan. Raised-up approximations for better urban regions and the moderated approximations where home values are lower than the coast-to-coast average need to be made. Project sketch will include the changing cupboards, floor tiles, countertops, sanitation fixtures, lighting and pieces of equipment. Using extraordinary, excellent grade supplies, construction and lasting detail. 1.1 Identifying risks This is amid the foremost choices that property-owners have to eventually deal with when developing a remodeling project (small kitchen in this case).  What are the risks?  Value, span of time...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

3. Biomaterials for bone tissue-engineering

...Running Head: BIOMATERIALS FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering Submitted by Goes Here September, 2011 Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering Properties of Biomaterials In the past scientists wanted the materials implanted to be ‘bio-inert’; however these day they want these materials to be bioactive. These bioactive materials should integrate with biological molecules or cells and regenerate tissues. When bones are concerned materials should be osteoinductive, osteoconductive and capable of osseointegration (Vandevord PJ, 2009). Osteoinductive cells are capable of promoting the different ion of the progenitor cells down an osteoblastic lineage. Osteoconductive cells support the growth of bones and also...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Bone Healing

... the broken bones. This soft cartilage keeps the bone in place while it is still recovering. A hard calous then develops replacing the soft cartilage around the bone while the body is growing a bone tissue to replace the cartilage. Finally, the body removes the remnant of the broken bones and replaced it with a normal bone. Remodelling sets in where the bone continues to form and return to its former state (2010). Factors which may complicate fracture The most common complication of a fracture is the non-union of the bone where the broken bones do not heal. It is usually attributed to smoking and alcohol during the recovery phase because nicotine constricts the blood flow to the bone and delay the healing process. The toxin...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Bone Anatomy

... Bone anatomy Question Diaphysis is also referred the shaft of the long bone. Epiphysis is end part of the long bone formed from secondary ossification. It contains a lot of cartilaginous material. Metaphysis is the zone of growth that develops between the epiphysis and diaphysis as growth and development takes place. Question 2 The shoulder contains the pelvic girdle which contains the scapula and the clavicle. The scapula further holds the humerus. The humerus which is the arm further connects to the fore arm which is composed of radius and ulna. The fore arm radius and ulna further connects to the wrist which contains the carpal bones. The carpals then connect to the metacarpals. From the hand we have the bones of the fingers known...
1 Pages(250 words)Lab Report

Winters Bone

... Winters Bone Summary The movie revolves around the life of a seventeen girl who takes care of her mentally unstable mother and her other two siblings, Sonny and Ashlee who are twelve and six years old respectively. Seventeen-year-old Ree looks after her family by feeding them and teaching her younger siblings how to survive through hunting and cooking, and her father remains at larger after leaving jail on bail for manufacturing amphetamines. For this reason, their life is miserable since should Ree’s father not show up before the court date, they are bound to live out in the cold after they lose their house. Ree sets out to look for her father, where she goes through the world of a drug user as his father is a drug producer, and Ree ends...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The Lovely Bone

... The Lovely Bones The Lovely Bones is a film which was adapted by Alice Sebold’s best-seller bookThe Lovely Bones and directed by Peter Jackson. The film is based on the murder of a young girl named Susie Salmon. The story is set in the year 1973 in Pennsylvania where the 14 year old Susie is raped and killed by her neighbor Mr. Harvey. The film has a tinge of supernatural effects as Susie dies and goes to heaven from where she can watch everything that is happening on Earth. More than being a supernatural film, it is about the story of family and relationships particularly after Susie’s death. The story is set in Pennsylvania where Susie is returning home through a shortcut. Near the cornfield she finds a shelter made by Mr. Harvey who...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Bone Disorders

... on the surface of osteoclasts and osteoblasts (Zallone, 2006). Bones maintain their strength and integrity through a process of continuous renewal known as remodeling. Accelerated bone remodeling may cause a range of bone disorders that include but are not limited to familial expansile osteolysis (FEO), juvenile Pagets disease (JPD), Pagets disease of bone (PDB), early-onset Pagets disease of bone (EOPDB), and expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (ESH) (Beyens and Van Hul, 2007). Many studies have concluded that the main cells responsible for causing disease in these bone disorders are bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Connective tissues are unlike the parenchymal organs in that their form and function reflects the extracellular matrices...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

CT Testing Prior to Bone Scan Testing

...Introduction: The Purpose of this research project, is to identify whether or not CT contrast, when administered for CT testing prior to bone scan testing, has an effect on image quality and diagnosis following a bone scan, in the event that both tests are administered on the same day. This is often done for the convenience of the patient but is possibly affecting testing outcomes and diagnosis. In many diagnostic situations, the scheduling of a CT scan and a bone scan will occur on the same day, allowing for testing materials to remain in the patient‘s body for not only the desired test appropriate for the material, but for the following test as well. Prior to receiving a CT scan, the patient will require the injection of a dye...
16 Pages(4000 words)Research Paper

Protein Intake and Bone Loss and Bone Fractures

...Introduction Research has shown that intake of adequate protein in the diet may be beneficial to bone health; however its exact role is still controversial. This essay examines the role of protein in bone loss/bone fractures. Many studies have described the positive role of protein in bone health. Promislow et al., 2002 did a prospective study in the elderly, studying the associations of total, animal, and vegetable protein with bone mineral density (BMD) and the variations in these associations with calcium intake. A positive association was shown between animal protein consumption, and an increase in bone mineral density (BMD), which was more significant in women. However, a negative association was noted between vegetable...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

An Examination of the Relationship between Excess Dietary Protein and Bone Loss or Fractures in Elderly People

...An Examination of the Relationship between Excess Dietary Protein and Bone Loss or Fractures in Elderly People The effect of protein consumption on bone density is uncertain. However, an increased consumption of protein causes excretion of calcium from the body. Thus, inadequate dietary intake of calcium could adversely affect the risk of bone loss or fracture from dietary protein. There is no clear evidence of the type of protein; animal or vegetable and its effect on bone density. The study examines the relationship between dietary protein and bone loss or fractures in people aged 55-95 years old. Also, the effect of dietary supplements, type of protein and lifestyle would be examined. The strength of the study would be to contribute...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Proposal

Remodeling Public Funding of Pensions in response to Demographic Change

...Order 424219 Remodeling Public Funding of Pensions in response to Demographic Change Demographic changes appear to threaten the viability of several pillars of the welfare state in particular with respect to public funding of pensions. How might the funding of and spenidn on state pensions be reformed to take account of falling population and longer life expectancy. How important are differences between the current pension arrangements of OECD countries in shaping their responses to demographic change. Introduction The theory of demographic transition presents the relationship between the demographic change and economic development in structured and stylized form. The process of demographic transition starts with a decline in mortality...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Relative Indications and Contraindications for Bone Grafting

... of people belonging to orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons would be needed to use dental implants to fill in the gaps of missing teeth. The team would also be able to remake the bone in areas where bone is not adequate for implants. Since orofacial trauma can misalign the teeth, gingivial gum tissue can be remodeled in areas around the implant so that the aesthetic appearance of the implant can be increased. If facial trauma occurs, the doctors need to respond promptly. Facial lacerations, fractured bones and intra-oral lacerations could be some of the features of a patient with facial trauma. Therefore, not only the bones and the fractured jaw needs to be realigned, and implants placed in the regions...
10 Pages(2500 words)Dissertation

Homeopathy as a Bone of Contention

...Homeopathy as a bone of contention Introduction Homeopathy is a bone of contention for the modern scientists. It is so because homeopathy does notfollow any of the theories on which the modern world of physics runs. First of all, homeopathy claims that the more diluted a solution is, the stronger it will be. Secondly, homeopathy made the seemingly bizarre claim of ‘similars’. Thus, though homeopathic medicines became popular because of the total absence of side effects and the general feeling of wellbeing, scientists and the advocates of conventional medicine are highly skeptical. Homeopathy and clinical trials- a story of success One allegation against homoeopathy is that homoeopathy is placebo. However, there are studies which show...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Bone Mineral Density in Saudi Arabia and DXA

...Bone Mineral Density in Saudi Arabia and DXA Final Title The Effects of Physical Activity and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Saudi Women Based on DXA Measurements Annotated Bibliographies Marwaha RK, Puri S, Tandon N, Dhir S, Agarwal N, Bhadra K, Saini N. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females. Indian J Med Res, 134(3): 307, 2011. The aim of the study was to explore impact of sports training on BMD among young Indian females. The study also aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary intake BMD among young Indian females. The findings illustrate that dietary practices and training enhance the level of BMD among women and prevents incidences the inciddencences of low...
10 Pages(2500 words)Dissertation

Can Bone Density in Children be Increased with Physical Exercise

... CAN BONE DENSITY IN CHILDREN INCREASE WITH PHYSICAL EXERCISE TO BOOST PEAK BONE MASS ATTAINED? Summary A person’s peak bone producing is prevalent during their early ages making it the most important time for people to take control. Physical exercise and standard dietary habits should be among the core practices of children as a way of building strong bones that will be of great significance when their age. With increased peak bone-mass and generally strong bones, a child eliminates some of the most critical risks that the elders of today experience i.e. fractures from osteoporosis. The chief aim of this project is making a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of physical exercises on children as the foundation...
10 Pages(2500 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Bone Remodeling for FREE!

Contact Us