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The Relationship Between Fluids and the Media - Assignment Example

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The paper presents carbon content on the carbon shaft that would systematically become increased in unalloyed grades from 0.60% to 0.75%. Therefore, the curve representing the start of transformation would curve more outwardly to represent the stressed components of steel from alloy…
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The Relationship Between Fluids and the Media
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STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND TREATMENT OF STEEL By Presented to STRUCTURE, PROPERTIES AND TREATMENT OF STEEL a) Sketchthe appearance of 0.6% plain carbon steel, used for a steering shaft of a car that has been
i. Slow cooled (i.e. annealed)
ii. Slow cooled (i.e. normalized in air)
iii. Fast cooled in oil
b) The TTT curve attached shows the two curves (i.e. start and finish) of the transformation products for a 0.6% low alloy carbon steel
Indicate on the diagram the following:
i. The critical cooling rate (in quotes)
ii. The cooling rate if the steel had been:
1. Annealed (marked in red)
2. Oil quenched(marked in blue)
3. Water quenched(marked in green)
4. Normalized(marked in yellow)
“Critical cooling rate” Start of transformation Finish of transformation
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
100 0.1 0.3 1.0 3 10 30 100 300 1000 3000
Time (Sec’s) log scale
iii. What would the effect of increasing the alloy content have on the position of the two curves?
The carbon content on the carbon shaft would systematically become increased in unalloyed grades from 0.60% to 0.75%. Therefore, the curve representing the start of transformation would curve more outwardly to represent the stressed components of steel from alloy. The curve representing the finish of transformation would curve more inwardly to represent the partially placed deposits of alloy components that cause up to 0.9%extra toughness on the entire steering shaft.
c) Explain how you would surface-harden this 0.6% low alloy carbon steel, and outline why this approach may be necessary on a steering shaft.
The orifice plate inserted in the pipe causes an increase in flow velocity and a corresponding decrease in pressure. The flow pattern shows an effective decrease in cross section beyond the orifice plate, with a maximum velocity and minimum pressure at the vena contract. The flow pattern and the sharp leading edge of the orifice plate which produces it are of major importance. The sharp edge results in an almost pure line contact between the plate and the effective flow, with the negligible fluid-to-metal friction drag at the boundary. Measuring fluid flow with an orifice and differential pressure manometer requires that the effect of the fluid over the manometer liquid be taken into account.
The main intention of this experiment is to explore the relationship between fluids and the media through which they travel by exploring the events that occur in the movement of a fluid from one point to another and the characteristics of the fluid itself. These may include may include pressure, momentum, viscosity, turbulence, velocity of the fluid and friction. It also considers the impact of foreign bodies and flow equipment along the path of the fluid
This experiment will allow students to learn the method of measuring air flow velocity using Pitot tube. The student will understand the working principle of Pitot tube as well as the importance of Bernoulli equation in deriving and calculating the velocity by exploring the developing boundary layer in the entry length of a pipe.
The main objective of this was to determine the vital discharge coefficient for an orifice plate meter installed within an air flow pipe and using the static pressure tapping’s provided, to investigate the pressure distribution along the pipe downstream of the orifice plate.
Essentially fluid dynamics in physics is considered as a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics, and deals with the relations between velocities and accelerations and forces exerted by or upon fluids in motion. This field encompasses aerodynamics, (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluids are either liquids or gases
A liquid is a state of matter in which the molecules are relatively but still are on average close enough together to interact continuously with nearest neighbors so as to maintain a relatively fixed volume. In contrast, a gas exists as a state of matter in which the molecules are practically unrestricted by cohesive forces and only interact occasionally when they collide with each other thus have neither definite shape nor volume. Fluid dynamics offers an intricate look into their structure that employs empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical situations. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as fundamental elements of space and time.
References
Abboud, J.H., Benyounis, K.Y., Olabi, A.G. and Hashmi, M.S.J. 2007. Laser surface treatments of iron-based substrates for automotive application. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 182, Issues 1–3, 2 February 2007, Pages 427–431
Katsamas, A.I. and Haidemenopoulos, G.N. 1999. Surface hardening of low-alloy 15CrNi6 steel by CO2 laser beam. Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 115, Issues 2–3, 18 July 1999, Pages 249–255
Menthe, E. and Rie, K.T. 1999. Further investigation of the structure and properties of austenitic stainless steel after plasma nitriding. Surface and Coatings Technology, Volumes 116– 119, September 1999, Pages 199–204
Menthe, E., Rie, K.T., Schultze, J.W. and Simson, S. 1995. Structure and properties of plasma- nitrided stainless steel. Surface and Coatings Technology, Volumes 74–75, Part 1, September 1995, Pages 412–416 Read More
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