# Management Research Exam Questions - Assignment Example

Summary
1. a. Discuss what are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales/variables. The fact of the matter is that even though information exists in almost every category of life, seeking to classify this information and define it is the process that allows humans to learn and understand things to a more complete degree…

## Extract of sample "Management Research Exam Questions"

Download file to see previous pages Firstly, the ordinal scale of measurement is one that attempts to provide a ranking of different orders. For instance, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th would be considered as ordinal. Such a ranking and listing is useful in many cases as a means of providing a degree of perspective for the researcher/reader that would otherwise not be reflected. Similarly, nominal variables are those that are generally entirely qualitative. As such, the differential between one item and another is predicated first and foremost upon the names that they individually represent and the means through which comparison can be drawn based upon this. Examples of nominal ranking and variables can be understood with regards to style, genre, and or biology. Interval scales/variables are useful with regards to understanding a degree of difference. For instance, the temperature scale of Celsius would be a perfect example. One can clearly denote that a temperature shift from 20-40 degrees in Celsius would represent a situation in which it becomes “twice as hot” as it was previously. As such, an interval scale need not only be applied to scientific measurement. As with so many of the other scales that exist throughout this discussion, an interval scale is also useful with regards to applying it in any litany of different situations. Finally, ratio type variables are useful in helping to measure or understand a type of differential between two otherwise non-comparable entities. Ratios are used in a great variety of different genres but are most specifically useful with regards to comparing impact or profitability of one group as compared to another. However, with that being said, ratios, although not used within the hard sciences to the same extent to which the other means of measurement are, can be effective in denoting the differential between two forms of measurement. Whereas it may seem as somewhat confusing what the reason and/or rational is behind all of these different forms of variables/measurement; however, the fact of the matter is that they all ultimately serve the same root purpose. This purpose is namely to allow the individual to categorize and define the broad levels of information that greet them during the course of the human experience. b. Discuss how each of them may be used in management research. Provide examples to support your discussion. A primary usage of the ordinal scale would be with regards to comparing and contrasting work performance based upon those that have been able to exhibit a very high percentage of efficiency/profitability or utility for the firm or organization in question. This ordinal scale is useful within the realm of management but should not be overused as there are unique human emotions and dynamics that tend to get lost when one focuses specifically upon a ranking of individuals or work goals that can be compared to one another. Ultimately, even though the ordinal scale is useful, the practitioner should seek to vary their approach to using this scale due to the fact that overuse would lend itself to something of a type of scientific management. The use of nominal variables is especially helpful with respect to allowing a particular stakeholder to understanding the realities of the work that is being performed. As compared to ordinal scales or variables, nominal ones do not require that an individual categorize or compare themselves based upon a ranking. Rather, the numbers ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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