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Microeconomics - Essay Example

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Microeconomics Part (A) Does the production function for buses imply increasing or diminishing returns to scale? (explain how we can tell). Find the number of buses, in each cell of this table. Production function shows maximum output with every given combination of production factors (Dwivedi, 2006, p…
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Microeconomics Essay
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Download file to see previous pages... This means that with an accumulation of production factors volume of produced goods will grow. To find number of buses with every combination of production factors, it is necessary to substitute each number of employees and quantity of machines for K and L indicators. Hence, if number of machines is 14 and number of employees who make buses is 5, then calculation of production output will be the following: In accordance with above example, we can calculate all the rest level of production. (K=10, L=3): (K=8, L=1): etc. Therefore, this allows filling in each cell of the table, which is represented below.   L= 0 L= 1 L= 2 L= 3 L= 4 L= 5 L= 6 K= 16 0 8 11 13 15 16 18 K= 14 0 7 10 11 13 14 15 K= 12 0 6 8 10 11 12 13 K= 10 0 5 7 8 9 10 10 K= 8 0 4 5 6 7 8 8 K= 6 0 3 4 5 5 6 6 K= 4 0 2 2 3 3 4 4 K= 2 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 K= 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 From the table we can also see that in accordance with accumulation of employees, number of produced buses grows. Part (B) Make an ‘Edgeworth box’ diagram for production of buses in Utropica: put the number of employees making buses on the horizontal axis (0 to 6), and number of machines used to make buses on the vertical axis (0 to 16). Draw an isoquant line for 5 buses. On the same diagram, add an isoquant for 7 buses, and an isoquant for 10 buses. To draw an ‘Edgeworth box’ diagram for production of specific number of buses, it is required to find all combinations of factors that are able to create the stated level of production. Hence, using a table above, it can be seen that 5 buses can be produced by 10 machines and 1 employee or 8 machines and 2 employees. So there are several alternatives for this output. Consequently, finding all possible combinations, we receive points that will form isoquant line on diagram. They are the following: K = 10, L = 1 K = 8, L = 2 K = 6, L = 3 K = 6, L = 4 Using the same method, we find combinations of the factors for producing 7 buses. K = 14, L = 1 K = 10, L = 2 K = 8, L = 4 And finally, 10 buses can be produced with a help of the following combinations: K = 14, L = 2 K = 12, L = 3 K = 10, L = 5 K = 10, L = 6 Having number of employees on the horizontal axis and number of machines on the vertical axis, diagram for three levels of production is represented below. Represented diagram proves the fact that isoquants never intersect with each other and have negative angulation. Also it can be noticed that isoquant with the biggest production is situated more to the right and upper compared to the rest (Slavin, 2011, p. 289). Part (C) If an employee doesn’t work on buses, s/he works on cars; machines not used for buses are used for cars. The production function for cars is Ncars = 0.34 K0.83L0.96 In the same ‘Edgeworth box’ as Part (B), add an isoquant for 9 cars. Add an isoquant to represent 6 cars, and a third isoquant for 3 cars, on the same diagram. Explain how this ‘Edgeworth Box’ can be used to show inefficient combinations of people & machines. Taking into account that the production function for cars is , we will use the same procedure for car production as for buses to define required combinations of factors and draw isoquant lines. So the table is represented be ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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