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Databases - Assignment Example

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In designing databases, the initial steps of drawing the entity relationship diagrams play a vital role in ensuring that the database works efficiently. The key components of these diagrams are entities and the relationships that exist among them. It is therefore wise to draw…
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Databases In designing databases, the initial steps of drawing the entity relationship diagrams play a vital role in ensuring that the database works efficiently. The key components of these diagrams are entities and the relationships that exist among them. It is therefore wise to draw these diagrams before developing the baseball statistics database.
To begin with, we must identify the attributes within the baseball statics. Identified attributes are as follows. Players are labeled as pitchers and hitters. The hitter statics include homeruns, batting average, stolen bases, doubles, triples and walks. The pitcher statistics are strikeouts, walks, saves, innings, pitched, earned runs, wins and losses.
The following design may then be used. We assume that each player belongs to the two categories i.e. hitter or a pitcher. The ER diagram is as follows.
An entity is in the first normal form if it contains no repeating sets of data. Similarly the above attributes contain several repeating attributes. Walks for example are found within the pitcher and the hitter. This wastes a lot of space in the data base. To normalize the ERD into INF we eliminate the redundant data.
In 1NF we introduce primary key. The primary key is a unique identifier that identifies an item (Marston, 2004). For example each player have their own unique ids that can serve as the primary key.
In 2NF we further normalize the diagram and include foreign keys. These foreign keys are items that are used as primary key in other attributes. The awayteamID for example was used in 1NF as the primary key for the Awayteam. It is therefore introduced into the game attribute as a foreign key
When we develop the 3NF we ensure that there is no redundancy. The relationship between player and batting is one to many. This means that a player can play for only one team at a time. The relationship between a team and a player is many to one meaning that many players can batt.
In 3NF we introduce foreign keys
PlayerId INT PK
FirstName varchar(50)
Secondname varchar(50)
Club varchar (30)

Evidently, drawing this 3NF diagram breaks down the design stage into smaller pieces that are manageable. The database can therefore be developed with ease.
Marston, T. (2004, September 30). The Relational Data Model, Normalisation and effective Database Design. Retrieved February 27, 2015, from Tony Marston: Read More
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