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Though being aboriginal inhabitants of these lands, for many decades they were forced to struggle for the ability to live and exist here equally with those who came much later: “I see men of…
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NATIVE AMERICANS IN US SINCE 1865 2 Introduction
The destiny of Native Americans is one of the most dramatic pages in the US history. Though being aboriginal inhabitants of these lands, for many decades they were forced to struggle for the ability to live and exist here equally with those who came much later: “I see men of my own race treated as outlaws and driven from country to country, or shot down like animals... We only ask an even chance to live as other men live. We ask to be recognized as men. We ask that the same law shall work alike on all men... Let me be a free man, free to travel... free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to talk, think... and I will obey every law or submit to the penalty” (Chief Joseph, 1879). In search of new lands and natural resources, such as gold, “new” Americans invaded the territories settled by Indians which caused endless wars and isolation of the latter. Nevertheless, if in 19th century the Indian-American interaction was largely armed and conflict in nature, 20th century has brought new perspectives and possibilities to make it smoother and more legal, moving from the battles on the fields to activities in the official organizations.
In this paper we aim to discuss six main events in the history of Native Americans, how they evolved since 1867 till now, and their role and impact in the US society in general. We believe that the most significant events were the Great Sioux War (1876 – 1877) as it marked the end of long-lasting military struggle between Indians and “white” Americans; 2) Dawes Severalty Act (1887) according to which it was planned to destroy the tribal system of Native Americans with its community ownership by giving every Indian a piece of private land (160 acres) and “further encourage Indians to dissociate themselves from the reservation system and to assimilate into white society (Fritz, 2005); 3) “Ghost Dance” of Wowoka (1890) who called Indian people for return to their native culture and way of life; 4) Indian Reorganization Act (1934) as it reversed Dawes Act and returned self-administration on the tribal basis to the Native Americans; 5) foundation of National Congress of American Indians (1944) that stood against the termination and assimilation policies pursued by the US government in reference to Indian authorities disregarding their treaty rights and sovereign status; 6) American Indian Movement (1968) which emerged to protect Native Americans indigenous rights and interests and “to free Indian people throughout the Americas from white man’s oppression and racism so as to create free Indianstates that reflect self determination of free peoples” (Founding Documents of AIM, 1976).
NATIVE AMERICANS IN US SINCE 1865 3
Annotated Bibliography
Abramson, J, Ives, S, and Kantor, M. (Producers), & Ives, S (Director). (1996). One sky above us [Series episode]. In K. Burns (Senior Producer), The West, A Film by Stephen Ives. United States: PBS Distribution. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database.
The movie describes the life of Native Americans and new settlers in the American West in 1887-1914.
Chief Joseph. (1877-1879). Chief Joseph speaks: Selected statements and speeches by the Nez Percé chief. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/jospeak.htm
These notes disclose the ideas and impressions of Nez Perces leader, Chief Joseph, on the way how “white people” treat Indians and how the latter deserve to be treated. His letters are full of desperation and pain. These materials can serve as a primary evident-based source while analyzing the Sioux Wars of 1866-1867.
Fritz, H. E. (2005). Allotment of Mineral and Timber Lands on Indian Reservations and the Public Domain. Historian, 67, 645-663. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website:
http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
This article analyzes Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 elaborated to allocate “farming and grazing“ lands to Indians and, thus, “end tribalism and reservations”. The author describes different points of view on this Act and finally argues that “influential members of the dominant white society” have speculated on Dawes Act interpreting it in the way which allowed them to get personal benefit and profit. This article also contains statistics, elements of comparison with another laws of the similar nature, the related ideas of various historians, etc. which can be applied to the current research as it directly coincides with the paper topic.
Hettler, A. D. (May 1, 2011). Beyond a Carcieri Fix: The Need for Broader Reform of the Land-in to-Trust Process of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Iowa Law Review, 1377-1402. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The article describes reasons and background for adopting Indian Reorganization Act (1934) and its key positions accompanied by authors explanations.
Hightower-Langston, D. (2003). The Native American World. 445p. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The author provides separate biographies of Indian-American personalities as well as descriptions of NATIVE AMERICANS IN US SINCE 1865 4
cultural achievements of the people since ancient times till now. In the second part of the book the writer focuses on the events that took place in the Indian-American history mainly in the second part of 20th century.
In the research paper we have largely relied on the book while analyzing the modern peculiarities of Indians social conditions and movements.
Hittman, M. (March1, 2011).Wowoka. Paiute Prophet and the Ghost Dance. Native Peoples Magazine, 51-52. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The article describes life, views and “messiah” activity of Wowoka, who created the Ghost Dance movement in the late 19th century. It also performs the ideas of the modern scientists appealing to the “inner sense” and meaning of the “ghost dance” phenomenon.
We found this source helpful while analyzing the corresponding event in the research paper.
Peterson, N. M. (August 1, 2004). Interpreter Phillip Wells. Wounded at Wounded Knee. Wild west, 22-30. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
The article is based on the memories of the Indian soldier Phillip Wells, who was a participant and eyewitness of the events of 1890 at Wounded Knee, which ended the Ghost Movement by killing about 150 Native Americans.
The article helps to understand the sequence of events that followed the Ghost Dance and how they influenced the further Indian movement direction, which is also applicable to our research paper.
(1976). “Self determination of free peoples”: Founding documents of the American Indian Movement (AIM). Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6897
This source contains the original passages from the Fort Laramie Treaty (1968) written by the members of American Indian (AIM) Organization claiming to recognize “sovereignty of Lacota nation”. This document is pertinent to apply as the primary source for our research paper as it contains important information regarding Indians nation in the second half of the 20th century.
NATIVE AMERICANS IN US SINCE 1865 5
References
1. Abramson, J, Ives, S, and Kantor, M. (Producers), & Ives, S (Director). (1996). One sky above us [Series episode]. In K. Burns (Senior Producer), The West, A Film by Stephen Ives. United States: PBS Distribution. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database.
2. Chief Joseph. (1877-1879). Chief Joseph speaks: Selected statements and speeches by the Nez Percé chief. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/six/jospeak.htm
3. Fritz, H. E. (2005). Allotment of Mineral and Timber Lands on Indian Reservations and the Public Domain. Historian, 67, 645-663. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website:
http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
4. Hettler, A. D. (May 1, 2011). Beyond a Carcieri Fix: The Need for Broader Reform of the Land-in to-Trust Process of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Iowa Law Review, 1377-1402. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
5. Hightower-Langston, D. (2003). The Native American World. 445p. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
6. Hittman, M. (March1, 2011).Wowoka. Paiute Prophet and the Ghost Dance. Native Peoples Magazine, 51-52. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
7. Peterson, N. M. (August 1, 2004). Interpreter Phillip Wells. Wounded at Wounded Knee. Wild west, 22-30. Retrieved from Ashford University, AU Library website: http://library.ashford.edu/index.aspx
8. (1976). “Self determination of free peoples”: Founding documents of the American Indian Movement (AIM). Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6897 Read More
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