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Realism - Coursework Example

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Answer 1: Renowned author and analyst Kenneth Waltz (1979) has elaborated the term anarchic structure in his theory of international relations, which refers to the rule of vae victis or might is right prevailing all over the globe, where the weak states and nations undergo sense…
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Realism Module Module ID: Realism Answer Renowned and analyst Kenneth Waltz (1979) has elaborated the term anarchic structure in his theory of international relations, which refers to the rule of vae victis or might is right prevailing all over the globe, where the weak states and nations undergo sense of insecurity and lack of protection in international arena because of the exhibition of power frequently performed by the large and strong countries of the world. Big powers, according to him, blow their own trumpet and impose their political, strategic and cultural influence upon the weak nations by dint of their might, which subsequently paves the way towards the creation of anarchic structure of international politics. It is actually due to the absence of some influential authority at international scale that could maintain peace and order by creating impediments on the way of inflicting injustices and violations at the hands of the powerful states. Consequently, the weak states remain under stress and pressure, and hence are bound to imitate the policies devised and designed by the big powers. William Golding’s world-famous Lord of the Flies (1954) also throws light upon the same notion that absence of any regularity force turns the earth into battlefield in the wake of tussle and conflict between various factions, communities and states as well. Golding has skilfully portrayed the scenario of national and international politics in the novel, where Ralph represents democracy, justice, struggle and determination, while Jack symbolizes strategic and financial power that is misused in order to subjugate others under one’s domination. Similarly, Simon is the representative of intellect, wisdom and philosophy; the intellectuals and philosophers explore and point out goodness and evil, and provide a theoretical outline to lead a civilized life; however, they are unable to implement and enforce the same, and hence lack practical leadership qualities in their personality. Moreover, the cultured but weak nations like Piggy cannot overcome the injustices and malpractices prevailing all around them, and eventually become victim of the same at the hands of the cruel stratum at last. The conflict between good and evil certainly gives birth to the anarchic structure, where the powerful stratum guises as savage and beast, and violates against the prevailing socio-political structure in order to rule over others, as Jack captured the attention of majority boys on the foundation of his physical strength on the one hand, and his financial position (i.e. hunted pigs) on the other.
Answer 2: Cynthia Weber has critically analyzed the realism theory presented by Waltz, and replaces it with the neo-realism theory, according to which wars are not mere the outcome of brutal instinct prevailing in every human mind; on the contrary, war and anarchic structure are the product of frustration and despair inflicted upon the individuals by others. Frustration invites creativity and rescue plans, which are directly dependent of self reliance schemes devised by the individuals and nations in order to escape their frustration and problems on the one hand, and for the fulfilment of their needs and requirements on the other. The same can be observed in Golding’s Lord of the Flies. Unlike several critics and analysts, Weber does not censure or condemn the beastie attitude adopted by Jack; on the other hand, Weber frequently describes Jack as a brave, hard working, curious and intelligent boy, who unites the boys under his leadership and strives to hunt pigs for them to eat. Hence, he is aware of the needs of others, for the fulfilment of which he puts his life at stake for the welfare of others; the same is the leadership attitude at national and international scales. All of the powerful European nations captured the territories and states in Asia and Africa, and also fought against one another in order to discover new lands to obtain raw material for their people, as well as for selling their prepared products to those region against high price. The same lust for domination over the weak is the order of the day in contemporary times, where the developed nations are enforcing their law, policies, culture and technology in the name of charity, aid and equality.
Answer 3: Waltz (1979) has elaborated the first image i.e. theory of instinctive territoriality in his work, according to which no group, community or nation allows any interference on the territory it has been occupying. On the other hand, such type of interference invites the wrath and infuriation of the possessor. It is therefore the Asian and African indigenous populations waged civil wars and revolts against the invaders with full swing. WWI was also the outcome of the same theory, where different strong powers had deprived the weak of her territories. As Germany had captured two French provinces Alsace and Lorraine in 1871 in the aftermath of Franco-Prussian War, which turned every Frenchman restless and agitated till they retrieved the same from Germany in 1919. Similarly, Germany was also determined to take back her territories from the Allies she had lost during WWI; which urged her to wage WWII to teach lesson to her enemies. The same could be observed in Golding’s Lord of the Flies (1954), where both Ralph and jack appeared to be reluctant to surrender the power and territories they had once occupied. Ralph was elected the leader of the entire group, which was broken into by Jack’s hunter-gatherer group. Gradually, the other members of Ralph’s group also started joining Jack, which infuriated Ralph and caused anger and woe on him.
The second image presented by Waltz argues that the countries and states being ruled by despotism or dictatorship maintain high propensity of getting indulged into wars and hostilities, whereas democratic states avoid the same due to the very fact that people have elected the governments of their choice in a civilized and cultural manner, and thus they have trust and belief in the policies being made and implemented. The same can be witnessed in Lord of the Flies, as Ralph’s group remained peaceful and law-abiding, and always kept the fire lightening. On the other hand, Jack’s group always appeared to be challenging and aggressive because they were not democratically organized one, and had only one passion i.e. to kill pigs and eat out of it in order to satisfy hunger. Thus, Waltz images appeared to be justified one and rational particularly while studying the novel created by William Golding.
Golding, William (1954) Lord of the Flies Reissue Edition, Perigee Books Publisher
Waltz, Kenneth Neal (1979) Theory of International Politics Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Read More
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