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Surveillance and intelligence - Term Paper Example

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Name History and Political Science 23 October 2013 1. Write a paragraph explaining cognitive dissonance and tell why critical thinkers need to understand the way it affects people- including ourselves- respond to domestic and international developments (30 points)…
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Download file to see previous pages Festinger in his analysis of the cognitive dissonance theory gave the analogy of a fearful person, who could not find commensurate cause for his fear. The person’s knowledge that he is fearful is incompatible with his knowledge that there is nothing to fear. (Wicklund and Brehm1). Cognition or elements of knowledge refer to knowledge one has concerning the environment or himself (Wicklund and Brehm 3). Critical thinkers need to understand the cognitive dissonance and how it impacts on our response to domestic and international developments. According to Festinger, it is this uncertainty in knowledge that culminates in a psychological state known as cognitive dissonance. Cognition also varies in extent to which it has resistance to knowledge. For example, a person’s knowledge of the greenness of grass is immensely resistant to change; a person with normal vision would find it difficult to visualize grass as being any other color than green. Generally, there are two distinct sources of resistance to change. The first source of resistance to change is difficulty in altering events cognized. What is commonly referred to as facts, for example, the grass is green, those worldly aspects that give us firm and clear cognitions. On the other hand, highly ambiguous events, for example, what will be the quality of life on earth a century from now?, is not clear. The second source of resistance to change is the clarity of reality presented by cognition. Cognitions concerning historical events are immensely resistant to change. On the other hand, contemporaneous events and cognitions related to them are easier to change. For example, if one finds that the air conditioner is too noisy, he or she can simply decide to turn it off. The original statement of Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory thus notably proposed resistance to change of cognitions and proportion of cognitions that are dissonant. Inclusion of the latter proposition distinguishes cognitive dissonance theory from other theories of cognitive balance, and makes it a fertile source of research. Cognitive dissonance theory however overlooks some aspects that characterize it from other theories of cognitive balance (Wicklund and Brehm 3). 2. Go into either “Factcheck.org” or “Politifact.com” and checkout one of the “Pants on fire” presentations. Write a short note why the original claim cannot be substantiated (30 points). The United States of America Congress financial services committee chairman in a house of congress floor speech commented that “members of Congress……are going to be the only people in America to get subsidies in the Obamacare exchanges” (“GOP rep. Jeb Hensarling Assails,” politifact.com). Obama and his allies created a system in which most Americans who have insurance remain on their existing health insurance plans. The marketplaces were created for Americans who lacked insurance entirely. Subsidies in Obamacare were rolled out in October 1st, 2013; the same day the shutdown began. Any American with a specified income range and who purchases insurance on the Obamacare market place will be eligible for subsidies in the form of tax credits. Staffers and legislators do not qualify for the stipulated subsidies or tax credits, since their income is very high. Instead they qualify for employer-cost sharing; that is, employer sponsored health insurance plans that long preceded the Obama care health system. Obamacare is ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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