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The Taliban - Research Paper Example

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The Taliban and Current Homeland Security Policies Toward Terrorism Name University The Taliban and Current Homeland Security Policies Towards Terrorism There is the current increase of incidents involving terrorist organizations globally during the past years…
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The Taliban
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The Taliban

Download file to see previous pages... Social scientists and organizations are conducting studies in order to develop “more concrete data…that lead some people to terrorism –and use those insights to develop ways to thwart it” (Tori DeAngelis, 2009). The Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu aptly puts it: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every vic­tory gained you will also suffer a defeat (The Art of War, 6 BC).” The Taliban The Taliban emerged in the 1990s as a predominantly Pashtun movement in northern Pakistan. The group became prominent in 1994 in Afghanistan and was then recognized by the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. It gained notoriety after the 9/11 attacks in the United States of America in 2001 and was soon removed from power in Afghanistan by a US-led coalition. The group advocated a hard line enforcement of Islamic Law (BBC News Asia, 3 January 2012). Taliban ideology is based on Salafism which follows the egalitarian model, and Pashtunwali, which “arose from the madrassas during the Afghan-Soviet war.” The group “represented nobody but themselves and recognized no Islam except their own. (Afsar, Major Shahid, Samples, Major Chris and Wood, Major Thomas, 2008). Their religious ideology firmly enforces zealous compliance to their rule including banning all forms of entertainment, and banning of women’s education, including their seclusion. Harsh punishment for offenses like chopping of hands and public executions are their common methods of dispensing justice for perceived crime (EASO, 2012). The group has a hierarchical and layered structure with autonomous units under the control of the central leadership. It is headed by the Mullah Mohammad Omar who also controls the Shura (Leadership Council) with several organizing directors controlling provincial level activities under him. The next level of hierarchy is the Provincial Chief with their respective Provincial Commision members, followed by the District level chief with District Deputies. On the fighter level, are the squad leaders with their respective Mujahiddens (EASO, 2012). Decision making is left to the top leaders who utilize authoritarian decision-making. The lower levels of the hierarchy on the other hand rely on consensus decision-making to maintain support from the populace (Afsar et. al, 2012). According to Jeffrey Dressler and Carl Forsberg, in their article Backgrounder The Quetta Shura Taliban in Southern Afghanistan: Organization, Operation and Shadow Governance (December 31, 2009) Large fighting units range in size from groups of twelve to thirty-plus fighters. They typically carry out…coordinated, multi-directional ambushes or raids in Taliban-controlled territory. Suicide bombers are…foreign…(as) their deaths will not be mourned by local families, potentially eroding public support for…Suicide attackers are trained in Pakistan and sent into the south, to report to a specific commander to receive instructions. At the district level and below are resourced by local indigenous fighters. Low-level commanders and small-unit leaders (no less than five personnel) operate with a higher degree of autonomy. Smaller units are typically comprised of between eight and twelve men, responsible for planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs), conducting small-scale ambushes of coalition and Afghan patrols and checkpoints and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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