The 19th and early 20th centuries were marred by the outbreak of war between and among nations worldwide. However, of notable importance are the invasions of African countries by European imperialists for colonization purposes…
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The pact was proposed in 1927 by Aristide Briand the then foreign minister of France. Briand proposed to the government of the US the establishment of a treaty prohibition war between the two nations (Special Cable 1935, 1). The US Secretary of State Franc Kellogg agreed to Briand’s proposal and proposed that the pact encompasses other nations in the deterrence of war among nations. After intense negotiations, the Kellogg-Briand pact encompassed 15 nations including among others Italy, New Zealand, Britain, the US, Germany and South Africa. Parties that accepted the contract agreed that, despite the origin and nature of conflicts among the contracting parties, neither party would use war as a medium of national policy. While up to 62 states eventually ratified the pact, the effectiveness of the Kellogg-Briand was eventually impaired by its inability to provide guidelines of enforcement. In addition, many nations gave the pact a rather unenthusiastic reception because most states recognized war as the sole solution to conflict resolution. It is essential to, however, note that while the Kellogg-Briand pact did not advocate resolution to war, the pact acknowledged the right of states to defend their integrity when under attack. The ineffectiveness of the Kellogg-Briand pact is also apparent because no nation or entity was given the authority to ensure all parties abide by the provisions of the pact. Apparently, the pact did not make any substantive contributions to ensuring international order in most cases. However, in 1929, the pact was invoked rather successfully when the USSR and China arrived at a tense moment regarding possession of the Chinese Eastern RR located in Manchuria (George 1969, 308). However, the Kellogg-Briand pact proved to carrying no significant weight, especially because of the practice of engaging in undeclared wars during the 1930s. Such undeclared wars include the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese, German’s 1938 occupancy of Austria and Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. This section of the paper will examine Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia in the year 1935, and discuss the effects of the Kellogg-Briand pact, if any. The war between Italy and Ethiopia, or the Second Italo-Abyssinian War as it is often referred occurred in 1935 between Fascist Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia. The war between the two nations is notable because of Italy’s use of underhanded strategies against Ethiopia (Mark 2001, 239). For instance, Italy’s illegal utilization of mustard gas clearly contravened the Kellogg-Briand pact. Italy, being a signatory of the pact had contravened the essence of the pact by engaging in undeclared and unwarranted warfare against Ethiopia because of Italy’s desire to annex Ethiopia, which was still uncolonized at the time. Perhaps the reason why Italy sought to annex Ethiopia was its inability to do so in the 19th century. When Italy acquired nations such as Eritrea and Somaliland, it was unable to annex Ethiopia. Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia exposed the inherent limitations of the League of Nations because the league was unable to protect Ethiopia or control Italy. This was despite the fact that both nations were its members and Italy was a
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The study of International relations is entangled with interactions among international communities, countries, non-governmental organizations, and corporations. Analysts and researchers argue that, the field of International relations is much more concerned with a study of the reasons behind interactions among various groups of persons, states and organizations.
Ever since Eritrea’s secession from Ethiopia, there has been constant opposition by intellectuals along with the opposition to the government’s plan of making Ethiopia a landlocked nation. People have totally rejected the secession (Kahsay, 2007).
The nation has become one of the fastest growing economies in Africa, largely depending on exports to European and North American countries. For instance, Ethiopia has improved relationships with Italy (as well) to boost trade ties and business activities (Selamta Report, 2010).
The conflict broke out as a result of Italian territorial ambitions in the Horn of Africa. It was also a desire to avenge the defeat of its forces by Ethiopia in the nineteenth century. This paper will seek to analyze and assess the causes of the conflict.
The right to privacy in this context means that no individual or organization has the absolute right to divulge information relating to a person’s private life, which may portray such person in bad light. This is essential especially in protecting vulnerable persons such as celebrities and other public figures that are always under the watchful eye of the media, which is considered as always keen to make business by revealing delicate information which it considers newsworthy.
The financial report from 2006 to 2010 includes five years, which need to be examined in order to know the stock movements in Kellogg. The company Kellogg is a leading producer and distributor of cereals, which was founded in the year 1906. The company’s name is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Dow Jones Stock Exchange.
The main idea is that the operation was nearly as large in logistical scope as it was in seminal importance to the Allied mission. Even as the invasion contributed significantly to the conclusion of the war, it’s ultimately difficult to label it a ‘success’ when one considers that significant death tolls that occurred on both sides.
It is occasionally referred to as the 'Roof of Africa ‘because of its large area and height. The Ethiopian -Highlands are partitioned into southeastern and northwestern segments by the ‘Main Ethiopian Rift’ that contains several salt-lakes (Blaikie 57).
This society is situated at the lower side of Manhattan. At this juncture, one should acknowledge that fact that little Italy is different from the Italian Harlem, with the later situated in upper Manhattan. Both these Italy’s are populated by Italian Americans.