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Does Oil prevent Libya's democracy - Research Paper Example

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Name Professor Course Date Does oil prevent Libya’s Democracy? Libya is the only country in Africa with significant oil reserves and ranked eighth globally. It is extremely desirable to explore oil in Libya due to the minimal production costs. Libya exports the majority of oil to the European markets…
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Does Oil prevent Libyas democracy
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Download file to see previous pages They argued that oil is an impediment to democracy in countries that derive revenue from it. The presence of oil has reinforced autocratic administration. The revenue from the oil regimes prevents the formation of social groups that claim participation and representation in the government. The oil revenues will provide the government with sufficient money and will prevent the mobilization of these groups independent of the state at the end. Oil rent refers to the revenue derived from the sale of oil products (Arwa 19). This income directly accumulates to the administration coffers. The revenue derived implies that the government will not have to tax its citizens. This excise effect minimizes the citizens’ demands for accountability and their aching desire to participate politically in the government adequately. This effect thus eliminates the ruler and the ruled linkages. The net effect is that democracy will less likely thrive in the state. The no taxation or representation in a state will make the leaders postpone democracy indefinitely. Oil rent enables the government to obtain political opposition to achieve legitimacy. The government has exceptional authority on how to account for revenue and spend because the oil rents directly accrue to the government. In order for the government to win legitimacy and consent from the total population, it uses rewards and even social welfare to dwindle off the social groups. The government is able to redistribute the proceeds to the public by offering education, employment, and a well-developed infrastructure through the welfare system (Arwa 20). In a rentier state, the biggest employer is the government. Only a few people from the total population will benefit from the oil rent through welfare, in addition to other benefits such as land gifts. In the end, the population also becomes a rentier class that regularly engages in a “rent-seeking behavior". This will influence the individuals to view this behavior as the best option compared to political unrest as a means to encourage redistribution. Loyalty and legitimacy in a rentier state creates patronage networks. Examples of patronage networks involve personal favors in the form of jobs belonging to the public sector and distribution of public resources in terms of licenses, contracts and even projects. This action leads to increased corruption and bribery. The individuals involved in these activities have a tendency of resisting democracy since democracy encompasses high levels of accountability and transparency (Arwa 22). At times, the state uses the oil rent to provide funds for repressive measures aimed at controlling opposition and the population at large. As oil revenues decline, the repression effect takes place thus leaving minimal amounts of money for activities such as patronage and welfare. This repression is achievable by banning of political parties and the independent media thus hindering democracy. Libya’s crisis resulted from the Arabs uprising and unrest in the Middle East. The presence of deleterious governance has been the core influence of the unrest. Then there is the issue of the western interest in the Libyans oil (Martinez, 28). The leadership of Muammar Qaddafi has attracted international interest. A peaceful protest in February 2011 culminated into a global crisis with a violent attack. The situation continued until the royal citizens took arms and engaged in a battlefield that have left so much ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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