Roman Civilization was technologically most advanced civilizations of its time and the technology they developed was used very effectively in engineering and architecture. The Roman architecture is based on the lifestyle the Romans adopted and the technological advances they achieved…
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Arches, vaults and domes were the aesthetical aspects of the magnificent structures of hippodromes, amphitheaters, fountains and plazas. The water supply system consisting of large reservoirs and aqueducts for transmission was also a state of the art at that time. Romans actually revolutionized the architecture and engineering and thus improved the lifestyle of human beings to a great extent (Sear). They gave the concept of large structures and long transmission lines and roads. The use of columns and arches helped Romans to significantly increase the size of structures. Romans started by improving the inventions of the previous civilizations but set new standards in all types of construction and engineering. The proof of their perfection in various structural advancements is the fact that centuries have passed but many of their buildings are still standing, some of the roads that they built are still useable. The era of Roman architecture and engineering can be termed as the transition phase between the modern era and the ancient era (Hamlin). The most important invention which was made during the roman era and which totally revolutionized the construction engineering is the invention of concrete. Although concrete was used in some of the Mesopotamian structures before Romans used it but the use of concrete was actually developed by the Romans because they used it as a tool for fulfilling the aesthetical requirements of the building which were considered very important at that time (Annely). Tile covered concrete was manufactured by the Romans and it acted as a very good replacement for marble which allow very less degree of innovation and advancement in buildings. The strength of large columns and arches was established as the Romans successfully used them in large structures for the first time in the history of architecture and construction. The Roman architecture and engineering was adopted from Greek as well as Etruscan civilizations but the advancement they achieved in this field was not matched by any civilization of that time. The various driving forces behind the development of architecture and engineering in the Roman era was the high population densities in cities and the increasing problems due to high increase in population. The various structural and engineering advances helped the Romans to fulfill all the dwelling, water supply and health care demands of the ever increasing populations in the cities. That is the reason we trace the origin of most of the modern residential schemes, water supply and sanitation systems in the Roman engineering systems. Moreover the governmental and organizational structure of state developed by the Romans forced them to build certain structures for governmental institutions. Those structural designs and plans are still followed for various governmental buildings. In the Roman era the trends in population increase in cities and urban problems was the same as in the modern era that is why Roman architecture and engineering provided the basis for the development of modern architecture, engineering and technology. The extensive knowledge of various construction materials helped them to manufacture new materials and develop new structural techniques. Starting from Doric style of columns which were very primitive with no aesthetical appeal the Romans continued to develop the columns as a structural member and also aesthetically (Jones). The Cornithian type of columns was the most advanced type developed by the Romans with very fine details and large flexibility in size and shape (Cuomo). The arches were perceived as the best structural solution in the roman scenario because of their large load bearing capacities and their aesthetical amazement. The
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